Monday, 11 December 2017
Advertising in Britain
1 out: If you set out to do something, you start taking action with the intention of achieving a particular aim. Establish
here means 'discover and prove'. Clearly the newspaper in question asked readers to vote for their favourite adverts or to complete a surveyor questionnaire.
2 many: The phrase as many as followed by a number is used for emphasizing that a number is considered high. In the next sentence, the writer says that British people admire television adverts and so it is clearly logical that a lot of them would have responded to the newspaper's attempt to find out what the best ones were.
3 in: If something abstract lies in something else, it exists or can be found there. The writer is saying that the reason
why so many people responded is that British people admire television adverts.
4 own: If something exists in its own right, it exists separately from others with which it could be associated and has its own distinct identity. The writer is saying that television adverts have become a distinct art form, separate from other art forms.
5 up: If you end up doing something, you do it, or something happens, at the end of a series of events or a period of time. The writer is saying that it seemed impossible in 1955 that people would later think that TV commercials were as sophisticated and innovative as programmes.
6 them: This refers back to the ads (adverts/ commercials) mentioned earlier in the sentence. The writer is saying that the programmes during which the ads appeared were considered sophisticated and innovative, but when adverts first appeared they were not.
7 their: This phrase means 'the making of them', 'them' being commercials. In this phrase 'making' is a noun, and it needs to be preceded by the plural possessive their, since it refers to 'commercials'. The writer is talking about how much money is spent and how much thought is given to produce each second of a TV commercial.
8 is: If something is the case for something, it is true of something. The writer is comparing television commercials and movies, opera, etc in terms both of what is involved in making them and the profits made from them and is saying that the amount is greater for commercials than for movies, etc. The verb is must be singular because the subject of it is the case.
9 with: With can be followed by a noun to link a sentence with the meaning 'Because of' or 'Following as a result of'. The writer is talking in this sentence about a result of the explosion of (sudden enormous increase in the number of) channels and websites.
10 on: If there is onus /ˈəʊnəs / on somebody to do something or if the onus is on somebody to do something, they have a duty or responsibility to do it because it is expected of them E.g. The onus is on employers to follow health and safety laws. The report puts the onus of children's early education firmly on the parents. The writer is saying that advertisers are expected to make television commercials that shock, amuse, etc because those commercials have to grab people's attention, since they are faced by competition from commercials on other channels and on websites.
11 of: If something/ somebody is worthy of something, they deserve to have or receive it. The writer is asking whether television adverts are important or serious enough for cultural appraisal (to have their quality or value assessed as
if they are part of culture).
12 are: This refers back to are at the beginning of the sentence. The writer is saying that television programmes are worthy of cultural appraisal and wondering whether commercials are too.
13 makes: The writer is asking what causes an advertisement to be truly great (genuinely of excellent or outstanding quality), what qualities it has that make it possible for it to be considered wonderful.
14 do: If something is to do with something, it is connected with or related to it. In this sentence, this means 'whether an advertisement can still seem fresh (original and interesting) after you have watched it 1,000 times', which is Robert Opie's definition of a truly great advertisement. This, he says, involves the two aspects he mentions - acting and details.
15 being: The sentence means that for an advertisement to be truly great, the acting has to be perfect and every single last detail (absolutely every detail) has to be correct. The verb has to be in the -ing form because it is directly connected with the preposition with.
1 undoing: Someone's undoing is the thing that ruins their life or causes them to fail completely E.g. That one mistake was his undoing. The writer is saying that the fact that Webb refused to give up swimming was disastrous for him in the end.
mammoth: /ˈmæməθ/ extremely large. Huge. E.g. a mammoth task. A financial crisis of mammoth proportions.
2 obscurity: If you live in obscurity, you are not at all famous or well-known. The writer is saying that nobody had heard of Webb until he swam the Channel.
3 exhaustion: If you are suffering from exhaustion, you are extremely tired and have no strength or energy left. The writer is saying that Webb was extremely tired when he finally arrived on the other side of the Channel.
fete: (also fête) / feɪt/ fete somebody (formal) to welcome, praise, honour or entertain somebody publicly. E.g. she was an instant celebrity, feted by the media.
mob somebody if a person is mobbed by a crowd of people, the crowd gathers round them in order to see them and try and get their attention. E.g. he was mobbed by autograph hunters
cheer: to shout loudly, to show support or praise for somebody, or to give them encouragement. E.g. We all cheered as the team came on to the field. Cheering crowds greeted their arrival. Cheer somebody The crowd cheered the President as he drove slowly by.
4 standstill: If something is brought to/ comes to/ is at a standstill, it ceases to continue to function and everything connected with it stops. The writer is saying that when Webb made a public appearance in the City of London, no business was done because everyone went to see him.
5 fearless: If someone is fearless, they are not at all afraid or are not capable of feeling fear. The writer is saying that Webb wasn't usually afraid of anything but he became frightened by all the attention he received.
6 stardom: Stardom is the situation or status of being very famous as a performer. The writer is saying that being very famous had an enormous effect on Webb, and caused him to make a terrible mistake.
7 applause: Applause is approval expressed by a crowd or audience by clapping (hitting their hands together). If you crave something, you want it desperately. The writer is saying that Webb was extremely keen to receive the praise and admiration of others.
8 endurance: Endurance is the ability to continue doing or surviving something difficult or unpleasant for a long time without giving up. An endurance event/ contest, etc is a sports event in which the competitors have to do something (swim, run, cycle. etc) for a very long time. The writer is saying that Webb took part in a swimming event that lasted for six days.
9 punishing: if something such as a timetable, schedule or workload is punishing, it requires an enormous amount of effort and energy on the part of the person doing it because they have to do a great many things, and it may make the person doing it extremely tired or ill. The writer is saying that Webb's timetable when he went to America was full and that he did too much while he was there.
lure: / lʊə(r)/ / ljʊə(r)/ lure somebody (+ adverb/preposition) (disapproving) to persuade or trick somebody to go somewhere or to do something by promising them a reward. Sp. atraer, tentar. E.g. The child was lured into a car but managed to escape. Young people are lured to the city by the prospect of a job and money.
crazed (with something) (formal) full of strong feelings and lacking control. Sp. loco, trastornado. Crazed with fear/grief/jealousy. A crazed killer roaming the streets. A crazed look in his eyes. Drug-crazed youths
10 regardless: The linking phrase regardless of means 'paying no attention to' or 'in spite of'. The writer is saying that Webb ignored advice not to try to swim the Niagara River.
subside: / səbˈsaɪd/ to sink to a lower level; to sink lower into the ground. E.g. Weak foundations caused the house to subside.
Multiple Choice Cloze
1. D forays
foray (to/into…) /ˈfɒreɪ/ a short journey to find a particular thing or to visit a new place. Expedition. E.g. weekend shopping forays to France. The perfect venue for a foray into the Dales or a trip across the North York Moors.
haughtiness: the trait of behaving in an unfriendly way towards other people because you think that you are better than them. E.g. without the slight trace of haughtiness or indifference.sabre-rattling also saber-rattling threatening behaviour which is intended to frighten someone. E.g. After months of sabre-rattling, the two sides have agreed to a peaceful resolution of their differences.
sabre or saber /ˈseɪbə(r)/ 1 a heavy sword with a curved blade 2 a light sword with a thin blade used in the sport of fencing. Sp sable.
rattle (something) to make a series of short loud sounds when hitting against something hard; to make something do this. Sp. repiquetear. E.g. Every time a bus went past, the windows rattled. He shook me so hard that my teeth rattled.
somersault: /ˈsʌməsɔːlt/ a movement in which somebody turns over completely, with their feet over their head, on the ground or in the air. E.g. to do/ turn a somersault. He turned back somersaults. (figurative) Her heart did a complete somersault when she saw him.
2. A rugged
rugged: /ˈrʌɡɪd/ not level or smooth and having rocks rather than plants or trees. E.g. rugged cliffs. The countryside around here is very rugged. They admired the rugged beauty of the coastline.scrumptious: /ˈskrʌmpʃəs/ tasting very good. E.g. a scrumptious chocolate tart. You can never go wrong by serving chocolate chip cookies - they work as well in a scrumptious dessert with ice cream as a school lunchbox.
Ubiquitous: /juːˈbɪkwɪtəs / seeming to be everywhere or in several places at the same time; very common. E.g.The ubiquitous bicycles of university towns. The ubiquitous movie star, Tom Hanks.
Upstanding: behaving in a moral and honest way. Upright. Sp. Íntegro. E.g. an upstanding member of the community.
3. C rent
rent: a large tear in a piece of fabric. E.g. Eddie was dismayed by the rent in the roof of the tent. (Figurative) they stared at the rents in the clouds.Haven: a place that is safe and peaceful where people or animals are protected. E.g. The hotel is a haven of peace and tranquility. The river banks are a haven for wildlife. The camp offers a haven to refugees.
jaunt: /dʒɔːnt/ a short journey that you make for pleasure. Excursion. E.g. Stoddard was a 19th-century career traveller who supported himself by giving public talks about his jaunts to Europe, Asia and the Middle East.
Rapture: / ˈræptʃə(r)/ a feeling of extreme pleasure and happiness. Delight. Sp. éxtasis. Charles listened with rapture to her singing. The children gazed at her in rapture. Never before had she known such rapture.
4. B cryptically
cryptically: /ˈkrɪptɪkli/ with a meaning that is hidden or not easily understood. Mysteriously. E.g. ‘Yes and no,’ she replied cryptically.
curmudgeonly /kɜːˈmʌdʒənli/ (adj) bad-tempered. E.g. I don't know, it's hard to explain how I feel without sounding curmudgeonly and bitter.
curmudgeon /kɜːˈmʌdʒən/ (N) a bad-tempered person, often an old one. E.g. Only the worst curmudgeon could dislike this site.
unsightly: /ʌnˈsaɪtli/ not pleasant to look at. Ugly. E.g. an unsightly scar. Unsightly factories.
Miserly: /ˈmaɪzəli/ 1. (of a person) hating to spend money. Mean. 2 (quantity) a miserly amount is very small and not enough. E.g. their miserly offer is unlikely to be accepted. Miserliness (noun) Sp. avaricia.
5. A akin
akin to something: (formal) similar to. E.g. What he felt was more akin to pity than love.
alike: very similar. My sister and I do not look alike.Airports are all alike to me.
resemble somebody/something to look like or be similar to another person or thing. E.g. She closely resembles her sister. So many hotels resemble each other. The plant resembles grass in appearance.
Reminiscent of sth/sb: /ˌremɪˈnɪsnt/ reminding you of somebody/something. E.g. The way he laughed was strongly reminiscent of his father. She writes in a style reminiscent of both Proust and Faulkner.
Edwardian: /edˈwɔːdiən/ from the time of the British king Edward VII (1901–1910). E.g. an Edwardian terraced house.
6. A frolicked
frolic: /ˈfrɒlɪk/ to play and move around in a lively, happy way. E.g. children frolicking on the beach.Dazzle: if a strong light dazzles you, it is so bright that you cannot see for a short time. Sp. Deslumbrar. E.g. He was momentarily dazzled by the strong sunlight.
rant: speak or shout at length in a noisy, excited manner or in an angry, impassioned (showing strong feelings) way . E.g. she was still ranting on about the unfairness of it all. Stop ranting and raving for a minute and start being honest with yourself (rant and rave to show that you are angry by shouting or complaining loudly for a long time)
jangle: / ˈdʒæŋɡl/ if your nerves jangle, or if somebody/something jangles them, you feel anxious or upset. E.g. She was suddenly wide awake, her nerves jangling.
7. B arm
arm (of water/land) a long narrow piece of water or land that is joined to a larger area. E.g. A small bridge spans the arm of the river. The attackers could only advance along that arm of land.
limb: an arm or a leg; a similar part of an animal, such as a wing. E.g. an artificial limb. For a while, she lost the use of her limbs.
8. D adapt
Adapt: /əˈdæpt/ 1. to change something in order to make it suitable for a new use or situation. Modify. Adapt something These styles can be adapted to suit individual tastes. Adapt something for something Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people. 2. to change your behaviour in order to deal more successfully with a new situation. Adjust. E.g. It's amazing how soon you adapt. The organisms were forced to adapt in order to survive. Adapt to something E.g. We have had to adapt quickly/ effortlessly/ easily/completely to the new system. I adapt automatically to another person. A large organization can be slow to adapt to change. Adapt to college. Adapt to a new job. Adapt yourself to something E.g. It took him a while to adapt himself to his new surroundings. 3. Adapt something (for something) (from something) to change a book or play so that it can be made into a play, film/movie, television programme, etc. E.g. Three of her novels have been adapted for television.
Alter: /ˈɔːltə(r)/ 1. to become different; to make somebody/something different. E.g. Prices did not alter significantly during 2007. He had altered so much I scarcely recognized him. He altered his appearance with plastic surgery. Alter somebody/ something E.g. It doesn't alter the way I feel. Nothing can alter the fact that we are to blame. The landscape has been radically altered, severely damaging wildlife. This incident altered the whole course of events. Weather alters plans for beach goers 2. to make changes to a piece of clothing so that it will fit you better. E.g. We can have the dress altered to fit you.
Modify: /ˈmɒdɪfaɪ/ to change something slightly, especially in order to make it more suitable for a particular purpose. Adapt. E.g. The software we use has been modified for us. Patients are taught how to modify their diet. We found it cheaper to modify existing equipment rather than buy new. He modified the design and thus ensured success. Our business plan has been modified substantially/ slightly/ subtly (/ˈsʌtli/ not very noticeable or obvious) during the past twelve months 2. Modify something to make something less extreme. Adjust. E.g. to modify your behaviour/ language/ views. 3. Modify something (grammar) a word, such as an adjective or adverb, that modifies another word or group of words describes it or restricts its meaning in some way. E.g. In ‘walk slowly’, the adverb ‘slowly’ modifies the verb ‘walk’.
Shift: 1. to move, or move something, from one position or place to another. E.g. Lydia shifted uncomfortably in her chair. Shift (from…) (to…) The action of the novel shifts from Paris to London. Shift something Could you help me shift some furniture? Shift something (from…) (to…) He shifted his gaze from the child to her.She shifted her weight from one foot to the other. 2. (Of a situation, an opinion, a policy etc.) to change from one state, position, etc. to another. E.g. Public attitudes towards marriage have shifted over the past 50 years. Government policy has already shifted subtly (/ˈsʌtli/ not very noticeable or obvious). Shift (from…) (to/towards/toward…) The balance of power shifted away from workers towards employers. Her sympathies gradually shifted to the side of the protesters. 3. To change your opinion of or attitude towards something, or change the way that you do something. E.g. Shift something We need to shift the focus of this debate. Shift something (from…) (to/towards/toward…) The new policy shifted the emphasis away from fighting inflation. 4. Shift responsibility/blame (for something) (onto somebody) to make somebody else responsible for something you should do or something bad that you have done. E.g. He tried to shift the blame for his mistakes onto his colleagues.
9. C stockier
stocky: short, with a strong, solid body. A stocky person looks strong but is not tall. E.g. a stocky figure/ build
fatuous: /ˈfætʃuəs/ stupid. E.g. a fatuous comment/grin.
alluring: /əˈlʊərɪŋ/ powerfully and mysteriously attractive or fascinating; seductive. E.g. the town offers alluring shops and restaurants.
haughty: behaving in an unfriendly way towards other people because you think that you are better than them. Arrogant. E.g. a haughty face/look/manner. He replied with haughty disdain.
10. A grazing
graze: to eat grass that is growing in a field. E.g. There were cows grazing beside the river.
chuck in: quit. E.g. The simple truth is, if you chuck in your job and decide to write full time, unless you're very lucky, you're going to run out of cash pretty soon.
seethe: 1. to be extremely angry about something but try not to show other people how angry you are. E.g. She seethed silently in the corner. Seethe with something He marched off, seething with frustration. Seethe at something Inwardly he was seething at this challenge to his authority. 2. seethe (with something) (formal) (of a place) to be full of a lot of people or animals, especially when they are all moving around. E.g. The resort is seething with tourists all year round. He became caught up in a seething mass of arms and legs.
strew: / struː/ strewed, strewed or strewn / struːn/ to cover a surface with things. Scatter. Sp. esparcir. E.g. Clothes were strewn across the floor.
11. B single-handedly
single-handedly: alone. E.g. She single-handedly saved the town from disaster.
huddle (up) (+ adverb/preposition) to hold your arms and legs close to your body, usually because you are cold or frightened. Sp. ponerse de cuclillas. E.g. I huddled under a blanket on the floor.
sparsely: /spɑːsli/ only present in small amounts or numbers and often spread over a large area. E.g. a sparsely populated area. A sparsely furnished room.
succinctly: /səkˈsɪŋktli/ expressed clearly and in a few words. Concisely. E.g. You put that very succinctly.
12. A redoubtable
redoubtable: /rɪˈdaʊtəbl/ if a person is redoubtable, they have very strong qualities that make you respect them and perhaps feel afraid of them. E.g. a redoubtable leader. He was dreading his interview with the redoubtable Mrs Fitton. Tonight he faces the most redoubtable opponent of his boxing career.
Redoubtable means honourable, maybe even intimidatingly so. If your grandmother worked tirelessly to raise four kids on her own and start her own taxi cab business and to this day, keeps all of her cabbies in line, she is without a doubt redoubtable.
The adjective redoubtable traces back to the French word redute, meaning “to dread,” a combination of the prefix re-, which adds emphasis, and duter, which mean “to doubt.” But it isn't the redoubtable person that you doubt — it's yourself or your ability to compete against or be compared to him or her. That's where the dread comes in. But you can learn a lot from and be inspired by redoubtable people, if you can just get over being afraid of them.
belligerent: /bəˈlɪdʒərənt/ unfriendly and aggressive. Hostile. E.g. a belligerent attitude. He is always very belligerent towards me.
doting: /ˈdəʊtɪŋ/ (used of both, men and women but it usually collocates with dad or father) showing a lot of love for somebody, often ignoring their faults. E.g. a doting mother/father. E.g. Doting dad Seb is delighted with his beautiful new daughter.
Beckham is such a doting dad that he had Brooklyn's name tattooed on his back
wimpy: (informal, disapproving) a person who is not strong, brave or confident.
13 C bundle
bundle: a number of things tied or wrapped together; something that is wrapped up. Sp. fardo. E.g. a bundle of rags/ papers/ firewood. E.g. She held her little bundle (= her baby) tightly in her arms. A thick bundle of envelopes.
shoal: /ʃəʊl/ 1 a large number of fish swimming together as a group. E.g. shoals of herring. Squid travel in shoals.
horde: /hɔːd/ a large crowd of people. E.g. There are always hordes of tourists here in the summer. Football fans turned up in hordes.
flock: 1. a group of sheep, goats or birds of the same type. E.g. a flock of sheep. The farmer kept a flock of geese.2. a large group of people, especially of the same type. E.g. a flock of children/ reporters. They came in flocks to see the procession.
14. D scrambled
scramble: to move quickly, especially with difficulty, using your hands to help you. E.g. She managed to scramble over the wall. They finally scrambled ashore. He scrambled up the cliff and raced towards the car.
unwind /ˌʌnˈwaɪnd/ unwound, unwound /ˌʌnˈwaʊnd/ to begin to relax after you have been working hard or feeling nervous. To stop worrying or thinking about problems and start to relax. E.g. Music helps me unwind after a busy day. I need to sit down and unwind for half an hour.
kick back: to relax. E.g. Kick back and enjoy the summer. He has not been able to kick back and enjoy his success. I'm about to take a week's annual leave starting next week so I'm going to be able to kick back and relax a little. Picnics are a time to kick back, relax and enjoy tasty, yet easy-to-prepare food with friends. The past few months have just been go, go, go and at last I'm getting the chance to kick back and relax.scrounge: / skraʊndʒ/ (informal, disapproving) to get something from somebody by asking them for it rather than by paying for it. Sp. gorronear. E.g. scrounge (something) (off/from somebody) He's always scrounging free meals off us. Can I scrounge a cigarette from you? I don't want to spend the rest of my life scrounging off other people. Scrounge (for something) What is she scrounging for this time?
shrub:a large plant that is smaller than a tree and that has several stems of wood coming from the ground. Bush. E.g. evergreen shrubs
box: 1. (Plants) a dense slow-growing evergreen tree or shrub of the genus Buxus, esp B. sempervirens, which has small shiny leaves and is used for hedges, borders, and garden mazes: family Buxaceae.
contentious: /kənˈtenʃəs/ likely to cause disagreement between people. Sp. polémico, muy discutido. E.g. a contentious issue/ topic/ subject. Both views are highly contentious. Try to avoid any contentious wording.
blunt: 1 blunt something to make something weaker or less effective. E.g. Age hadn't blunted his passion for adventure. 2 blunt something to make a point or an edge less sharp. Sp. desafilar. E.g. blunt the knives.
15. C jury
the jury is (still) out on something used when you are saying that something is still not certain. E.g. The jury is still out on whether wine can be good for you.
culprit: /ˈkʌlprɪt/ a person who has done something wrong or against the law. Culpable. E.g. The police quickly identified the real culprits.
perpetrator: /ˈpɜːpətreɪtə(r)/ a person who commits a crime or does something that is wrong or evil. Sp. Autor. E.g. the perpetrators of the crime. We will do everything in our power to bring the perpetrators to justice.
call something off: to cancel something; to decide that something will not happen. To call off a deal/ trip/ strike. They have called off their engagement (= decided not to get married). The game was called off because of bad weather.
call it a day: (informal) to decide or agree to stop doing something. E.g. After forty years in politics I think it's time for me to call it a day (= to retire).
long drink: a cold drink that fills a tall glass, such as lemonade or beer.
have come a long way: to have made a lot of progress. E.g. We've come a long way since the early days of the project.
use something up: to use all of something so that there is none left. E.g. Making soup is a good way of using up leftover vegetables.
Key word transformation
stick to something: 1 to continue doing something despite difficulties. E.g. She finds it impossible to stick to a diet. 2 to continue doing or using something and not want to change it. E.g. He promised to help us and he stuck to his word(= he did as he had promised). ‘Shall we meet on Friday this week?’ ‘No, let's stick to Saturday. ’She stuck to her story.
spare a thought for someone: to think about someone who is in a difficult situation. E.g. You should spare a thought for the person who cleans up after you. Please, spare a thought for the homeless this Christmas.