Wednesday, 30 November 2011

Fire Drill Procedure

IN THE EVENT OF A FIRE
A member of staff will activate the fire alarm.
Take the evacuation in a calm orderly manner, leaving personal belongings behind.
The teacher of each class must indicate the exit route to be used and everyone must be directed to a Predetermined Assembly Point.
Assembly point /əˈsembli /(= a place where people have been asked to meet)
Specific arrangements must be made for students with physical disabilities to ensure that they are assisted during evacuation.
The students will line up and walk smartly to the assembly point, led by their teacher. The students are expected to follow any instructions given to them by the staff.
No running is to be permitted to avoid panic.
On staircases everyone must descend in single file. Overtaking of classes or individuals must not be permitted.
Smartly: quickly
(in) single file: (also old-fashioned (in) Indian file) (in) one line, one behind the other. E.g. They made their way in single file along the cliff path.
Lifts must not be used.
Anyone who is not in class when the fire alarm sounds must go immediately to the assembly point.
A roll call should be conducted: at the assembly point the teacher will check the students against the register and report to the senior member of staff that the students and staff are ALL accounted for.
Roll-call: the reading of a list of names to a group of people to check who is there. E.g. Roll-call will be at 7 a.m.
Account for somebody/something: to know where somebody/something is or what has happened to them, especially after an accident. E.g. All passengers have now been accounted for. Three files cannot be accounted for.
Staff and students will wait at the assembly point until told by the fire officer that it is safe to re-enter the building and the all-clear is given.
The all-clear: signal (often a sound) which shows that a place or situation is no longer dangerous. E.g. The children hid in the basement until the all-clear sounded.
ON NO ACCOUNT RE-ENTER THE BUILDING UNTIL THE ALL CLEAR IS GIVEN.
THE SAFETY OF THE STUDENTS IS PARAMOUNT AND ANY INSTRUCTIONS GIVEN BY THE FIRE SERVICE SHOULD BE ACTED UPON IMMEDIATELY.
Act on/upon something: to take action as a result of advice, information, etc. Proceder según, actuar de acuerdo a. E.g. Acting on information from a member of the public, the police raided the club. Why didn't you act on her suggestion?

Objective Proficiency p 61. Vocabulary

Ex 5
KEY
Slash something: to make a long cut with a sharp object, especially in a violent way. E.g. Someone had slashed the tyres on my car.
1c
Receiving mixed reactions from members of the public, the exhibition includes some rather shocking images.





2f 
Often occurring in open landscape, Andy Goldsworthy's sculptures are particularly effective during dramatic weather conditions



3b
Wanting to create order from chaos, physicists are constantly trying to reduce the universe to a set of basic principles. 



4e 
Having taken quite a few warm-up shots, the photographer then caught the model unawares in a more relaxed pose. 
Unawares: / ˌʌnəˈweəz/ when not expected. E.g. The camera had caught her unawares. The announcement took me unawares. She came upon him unawares when he was searching her room.



5a 
Coming in from the street for an hour's rest, people don't realise that the beds — and they themselves — are part of an installation. 



6d 
Having bought two previous works by this artist, I am now looking out for a third.



Ex 6
KEY
a (being) chosen



b shown



c sold



d made



e being searched



f announced
Shortlist: a small number of candidates for a job, etc, who have been chosen from all the people who applied. E.g. to draw up a shortlist. A shortlist for a literary prize. She is on my shortlist of great singers. 



g damaged

Tuesday, 29 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 60. Shackelton's Expedition. Extra Reading

Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton, (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was an Anglo-Irish polar explorer, one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. His first experience of the polar regions was as third officer on Captain Robert Falcon Scott’s Discovery Expedition, 1901–04, from which he was sent home early on health grounds. Determined to make amends for this perceived personal failure, he returned to Antarctica in 1907 as leader of the Nimrod Expedition. In January 1909 he and three companions made a southern march which established a record Farthest South latitude at 88° 23′ S, 97 geographical miles (114 statute miles, 190 km) from the South Pole, by far the closest convergence in exploration history up to that time. For this achievement, Shackleton was knighted by King Edward VII on his return home.

After the race to the South Pole ended in 1912 with Roald Amundsen's conquest, Shackleton turned his attention to what he said was the one remaining great object of Antarctic journeying–the crossing of the continent from sea to sea, via the pole. To this end he made preparations for what became the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, 1914–17. Disaster struck this expedition when its ship, Endurance, became trapped in pack ice and was slowly crushed before the shore parties could be landed. There followed a sequence of exploits, and an ultimate escape with no lives lost, that would eventually assure Shackleton's heroic status, although this was not immediately evident. In 1921 he went back to the Antarctic with the Shackleton-Rowett Expedition, intending to carry out a programme of scientific and survey activities. Before the expedition could begin this work Shackleton died of a heart attack while his ship, Quest, was moored in South Georgia. At his wife's request he was buried there.

To see the motion picture film of the expedition you can visit these links:

http://www.shackleton-endurance.com/

http://www.shackleton-endurance.com/Map%20Pages/Intro.html

Objective Proficiency p 60. How to Grow a Planet. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 60. Tidal Force. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 60. A Very British Renaissance. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 60. The Genius of Turner: Painting the Industrial Revolution. Extra Listening

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Objective Proficiency p 60. Beauty Written in the Stars. Extra Word Formation

1___________(GAZE) at the 2___________ (SMOKE), 3__________ (GLOW) gas clouds of the 'starburst' galaxy 4___________ (SHOW) here, we are savouring a beauty that is the 5_____________ (ACCIDENT) product of events that happened in a distant time and part of the universe.
The result looks like a great painting. To be precise, it is 6______________ (REMINISCENCE) of the work of Turner, that 7___________ (MASTER) nineteenth-century British 8_________ (ART). For John Ruskin, Turner's champion and near-contemporary, the object of art was to reveal the divine hand in nature. That was what he meant by beauty. What might he have said today, having viewed the pictures taken by the Hubble Space Telescope?
Having been launched in 1990 with an 9____________ (ACCURATE)  ground lens, Hubble was 10_____________ (INITIAL) a huge 11____________ (EMBARRASS), 12__________ (SEND) back 13______________ (DISTINCT) images that impressed no one. However, the picture changed, quite 14______________ (LITERAL), in 1993. On being 15____________ (SUCCESS) repaired by shuttle astronauts, the telescope proceeded to relay the most spectacular images to us. Hubble is now like an eye with a cataract 16_____________ (MOVE), 17___________ (SEE) into deep space with a hard, bright 18______________ (PRECISE) that is almost 19___________ (COMFORT).
There has never been a more gratuitous 20__________ (ADD) to our store of beauty. Ultimately, when we call a work of art beautiful we are comparing it to nature. The 21__________ ( LIE)  structures of nature 22____________ (IMITATE) by artists from ancient Greece until the middle of the 20th century were chosen because nature was perceived as beautiful. If we don't talk much about "beauty" in contemporary art, it is due to the fact that art is no longer concerned with the representation of nature. Arguably, the photographs taken by Hubble are the most 23________________ (FLAMBOYANT) beautiful artworks of our time.

1. Gazing
Gaze: to look steadily at somebody/something for a long time, either because you are very interested or surprised, or because you are thinking of something else. Stare. E.g. She gazed at him in amazement. He sat for hours just gazing into space.



2. smoky



3. glowing
Glow: to produce a dull, steady light. E.g. The lighted candles glowed in the darkness. 

Starburst: a bright light in the shape of a star, or a shape that looks like a star exploding. A period of intense activity in a galaxy involving the formation of stars. E.g. a starburst galaxy.



4. shown



5. accidental 



6. reminiscent 

reminiscent of somebody/something reminding you of somebody/ something. E.g. The way he laughed was strongly reminiscent of his father. She writes in a style reminiscent of both Proust and Faulkner.

reminiscence /ˌremɪˈnɪsns/ stories or thoughts of past experiences. Memory. E.g. Personal reminiscences of the war. The book is a collection of his reminiscences about the actress.



7. masterly
masterly: (adj) showing great skill or understanding.  Done in a very skilful and clever way. E.g. a masterly performance. Her handling of the situation was masterly. All handled in a masterly manner.



8. artist



9.  inaccurately



10. initially



11. embarrassment



12. sending



13. indistinct



14.  literally



15. successfully

relay: /ˈriːleɪ/ /rɪˈleɪ/
1. relay something (to somebody) to receive and send on information, news, etc. to somebody. E.g. He relayed the message to his boss. Instructions were relayed to him by phone. 
2 relay something (to somebody) to broadcast television or radio signals. E.g. The game was relayed by satellite to audiences all over the world. 



16. removed 



17. seeing 



18. precision 



19. uncomfortable 



20. addition 



21. underlying
underlie something (formal) to be the basis or cause of something. E.g. These ideas underlie much of his work. It is a principle that underlies all the party's policies.



22. imitated 



23. flamboyantly  
Flamboyant: /flæmˈbɔɪənt/ 1. (of people or their behaviour) different, confident and exciting in a way that attracts attention. Sp. Exuberante, extravagante. E.g. a flamboyant gesture/style/personality. He was flamboyant and temperamental on and off the stage. 2. brightly coloured and noticeable. Sp. Vistoso, llamativo. E.g. flamboyant clothes/designs.
 




Adapted from The Guardian

Objective Proficiency p 60. Keys and Vocabulary

Ex 1 (2002 edition: Ex 2)
a
KEY
dazzling: adjective  
Dazzling: (adj) Extremely impressive, beautiful, or skilful. E.g. a dazzling display of football.

eyeballing: participle 
eyeball: look or stare at closely. E.g. we eyeballed one another 


b
KEY
i Driving refers to Percy Shaw
ii Modelled refers to his invention (the cat's eye) 



c
KEY
i The cat is sitting on the roof
ii The person is sitting on the roof 


Ex 2 (2002 edition: Ex 1)
awe-inspiring: impressive; making you feel respect and admiration. E.g. The building was awe-inspiring in size and design. There is something very awe-inspiring about this image.

indistinct: /ˌɪndɪˈstɪŋkt/ that cannot be seen, heard or remembered clearly. E.g. an indistinct figure in the distance. His memory of the incident was somewhat indistinct.

Dazzle: to impress somebody a lot with your beauty, skill, etc. E.g. He was dazzled by the warmth of her smile. Dazzling: (adj) e.g. a dazzling display of oriental dance.

Flamboyant: /flæmˈbɔɪənt/ 1. (of people or their behaviour) different, confident and exciting in a way that attracts attention. Sp. Exuberante, extravagante. E.g. a flamboyant gesture/style/personality. He was flamboyant and temperamental on and off the stage. 2. brightly coloured and noticeable. Sp. Vistoso, llamativo. E.g. flamboyant clothes/designs.

Gratuitous: /ɡrəˈtjuːɪtəs/ done without any good reason or purpose and often having harmful effects. Unnecessary. E.g. gratuitous violence on television.

Inspiring: /ɪnˈspaɪərɪŋ/ Exciting and encouraging you to do or feel something. E.g. an inspiring teacher

Stunning: extremely attractive or impressive. Beautiful. E.g. You look absolutely stunning! A stunning view of the lake. His performance was simply stunning.

Towering: extremely tall or high and therefore impressive. E.g. towering cliffs. The gas clouds in the space image are almost flamboyant in their towering grandeur.

Grandeur: /ˈɡrændjə(r)/ /ˈɡrændʒə(r)/ the quality of being great and impressive in appearance.  Splendour. E.g. the grandeur and simplicity of Roman architecture. The hotel had an air of faded grandeur. 
 

Ex 3 
  • Gaze: to look steadily at somebody/something for a long time, either because you are very interested or surprised, or because you are thinking of something else. E.g. He sat for hours just gazing into space.
  • Glow: to produce a dull, steady light. E.g. The embers (brasas) still glowed in the hearth (/hɑːθ /the floor at the bottom of a fireplace). The lighted candles glowed in the darkness. 
  • Starburst: a bright light in the shape of a star, or a shape that looks like a star exploding.
  • Reminiscent of sth/sb: /ˌremɪˈnɪsnt/ reminding you of somebody/something. E.g. The way he laughed was strongly reminiscent of his father. She writes in a style reminiscent of both Proust and Faulkner.
  • Masterly: / ˈmɑːstəli/ showing great skill or understanding. E.g. a masterly performance. Her handling of the situation was masterly.
  • Relay: to receive and send on information, news, etc. to somebody. Transmitir. E.g. He relayed the message to his boss.Instructions were relayed to him by phone.
  • Flamboyant: /flæmˈbɔɪənt/ different, confident and exciting in a way that attracts attention. Extravagante. A flamboyant gesture/style/personality. He was flamboyant and temperamental on and off the stage.
P 182
  • (Go) back to the drawing board: to start thinking about a new way of doing something after a previous plan or idea has failed. E.g. They rejected our proposal, so it's back to the drawing board. 

Monday, 28 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 59. The Story of Women and Art. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 59. Henri Matisse - A Cut Above the Rest : The Culture Show. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 59. Spain’s Influence on the United States. Extra Reading



Celebrating Spain’s Influence on the United States

Spaniards were among the first explorers to reach the coasts of the future United States, leaving a deep legacy on their culture, cuisine and customs, from Florida to California. Google is celebrating this influence this year in seven exciting new exhibitions on their Cultural Institute platform.

Take this opportunity to visit other collections and exhibits:
The National Gallery, London
The Yale Center for British Art  
The Metropolitan Museum of Art


and exhibits:
RE.CREATE with Tate Britain: Cooking
RE.CREATE with Tate Britain: Comedy
 


Objective Proficiency p 59. Great Artists in Their Own Words. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 59. Art or Not Art. Extra Speaking

Objective Proficiency p 59. Idiom Spot. Extra Key Word Transformation

1. One of the books on the top shelf attracted my interest, and I took it down to look at it.
EYE
One of the books on the top shelf __________________, and I took it down to look at it.
2.  I felt so embarrassed - I just couldn't look directly at him without fear or shame.
EYE
I felt so embarrassed - I just couldn't ______________________. 
3. Would you mind looking at my essay quickly my essay and giving me your comments?
EYE
Would you mind _______________________my essay and giving me your comments? 
4.  He was good at noticing the unusual and the exotic which made him a very good shopping companion.
EYE
He ___________________ the unusual and the exotic which made him a very good shopping companion.   
5. Management often choose to ignore bullying in the workplace.
EYE
Management often ___________________ bullying in the workplace.  
6. My father and I agree on most things.
EYE
My father and I ___________________most things.  
7. Politicians are constantly visible to all.
EYE
Politicians find themselves constantly __________________.  


KEY
1. One of the books on the top shelf caught my eye, and I took it down to look at it. 
  • Catch somebody's eye: 1. if something catches your eye, you suddenly notice it. E.g. There was one painting that caught my eye.
    2. to attract somebody's attention. E.g. Can you catch the waiter's eye?




2. I felt so embarrassed - I just couldn't look him in the eye. 
  • look somebody in the eye(s)/face

    (usually used in negative sentences and questions) to look straight at somebody without feeling embarrassed or ashamed. E.g. Can you look me in the eye and tell me you're not lying? I'll never be able to look her in the face again!


3. Would you mind casting an eye over my essay and giving me your comments?
  • Cast/run an eye/your eyes over something: to look at or examine something quickly. Check. E.g. Could you just run your eyes over this report? 


4.  He had an eye for the unusual and the exotic which made him a very good shopping companion.
Have an eye for something: to be able to judge if things look attractive, valuable, etc. E.g. I've never had much of an eye for fashion. She has an eye for a bargain.  



5. Management often turn a blind eye to bullying in the workplace.
Turn a blind eye (to something): to pretend not to notice something bad that is happening, so you do not have to do anything about it. E.g. The authorities were either unaware of the problem or turned a blind eye to it.   



6. My father and I see eye to eye on/about most things
see eye to eye (about/on someone or something) (with someone) to agree about someone or something with someone else. E.g. I'm glad we see eye to eye about Todd with Mary. I see eye to eye with Mary. Will labour and management ever see eye to eye on the new contract?  



7. Politicians find themselves constantly in the public eye.  
  • in the public eye well known to many people through newspapers and television. E.g. She doesn't want her children growing up in the public eye.
 
  

Objective Proficiency p 59. Keys and Vocabulary

Idiom spot
  • Catch somebody's eye: 
1. if something catches your eye, you suddenly notice it. E.g. There was one painting that caught my eye.
2. to attract somebody's attention. E.g. Can you catch the waiter's eye?
  • look somebody in the eye(s)/face

    (usually used in negative sentences and questions) to look straight at somebody without feeling embarrassed or ashamed. E.g. Can you look me in the eye and tell me you're not lying? I'll never be able to look her in the face again!
     
  • Cast/run an eye/your eyes over something: to look at or examine something quickly. Check. E.g. Could you just run your eyes over this report?
  • Have an eye for something: to be able to judge if things look attractive, valuable, etc. E.g. I've never had much of an eye for fashion. She has an eye for a bargain. 
  • Turn a blind eye (to something): to pretend not to notice something bad that is happening, so you do not have to do anything about it. E.g. The authorities were either unaware of the problem or turned a blind eye to it. 
  • Not see eye to eye with somebody (on something): to not share the same views as somebody about something. E.g. The two of them have never seen eye to eye on politics.
  • in the public eye well known to many people through newspapers and television. E.g. She doesn't want her children growing up in the public eye.
  • Petty: /ˈpeti/ small and unimportant. E.g. petty crime/theft (= that is not very serious).

Ex 4
  • Pointillism:  /ˈpɔɪntɪlɪzəm/ /ˈpwæntɪlɪzəm/ a style of painting that was developed in France in the late 19th century in which very small dots of colour are used to build up the picture. Sp. Puntillismo. Pointillist /pɔɪntɪlɪst/ /ˈpwæntɪlɪst/
  
  • Lucid: /ˈluːsɪd/ clearly expressed; easy to understand. Clear. E.g a lucid style/explanation.
1. essence


2. Hitherto: /ˌhɪðəˈtuː/ until now; until the particular time you are talking about. E.g. a hitherto unknown species of moth. Her life hitherto had been devoid of adventure.
  • Stroke: a mark made by moving a pen, brush, etc. once across a surface. E.g. to paint with fine brush strokes (pinceladas) At the stroke of a pen (= by signing something) they removed thousands of people from the welfare system.


3. unpredictable
  • Smear (something): to rub writing, a drawing, etc. so that it is no longer clear; to become not clear in this way. Smudge. E.g. The last few words of the letter were smeared. 

  • Streaky: /ˈstriːki/ marked with lines of a different colour. E.g. streaky blonde hair. The wallpaper was streaky with grease. (British English) streaky bacon (= with layers of fat in it).

  • Squidgy: /ˈskwɪdʒi/ soft and wet, and easily squashed. E.g. a squidgy sofa. Chocolates with squidgy centres.
 4. intuitively
  • Conform to/with something: to obey a rule, law, etc. Comply. Sp. Cumplir con, ajustarse a. E.g. The building does not conform with safety regulations. 


5. stability
  • Draw on/upon something: to use a supply of something that is available to you.  Sp. Recurrir a. E.g. I'll have to draw on my savings. The novelist draws heavily on her personal experiences.
6. incomparable
  • Incomparable: /ɪnˈkɒmprəbl/ so good or impressive that nothing can be compared to it. E.g. the incomparable beauty of Lake Garda. The incomparable Frank Sinatra.


7. influential 



8. interaction
  • Hue: /hjuː/ a colour; a particular shade of a colour. E.g. His face took on an unhealthy whitish hue. Her paintings capture the subtle hues of the countryside in autumn. 


Sunday, 27 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 58. Art




pull the wool over someone's eyes: to deceive someone. E.g. You can't pull the wool over my eyes. I know what's going on. Don't try to pull the wool over her eyes. She's too smart. These people who claim to have paranormal or supernatural powers are just pulling the wool over people's eyes.

Objective Proficiency p 58. Queen Letizia Launches a Velazquez Exhibition in Vienna. Extra Listening


Related stories:

On her travels again! Queen Letizia is the princess of plaid as she launches an art exhibition in Austrian capital Vienna

 


Objective Proficiency p 58. The Dark Ages: An Age of Light. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 58. The High Art of the Low Countries. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 58. Rococo: Travel, Pleasure, Madness. Extra Listening



Following the grandeur of Baroque, Rococo art is often dismissed as frivolous and unserious, but Waldemar Januszczak disagrees. In this three-part series he re-examines Rococo art and argues that the Rococo was actually the age in which the modern world was born. Picking three key territories of Rococo achievement - travel, pleasure and madness - Waldemar celebrates the finest cultural achievements of the period and examine the drives and underlying meanings that make them so prescient.
The first episode is about travel in the 18th century and how it impacted greatly on some of the finest art ever made. The world was getting smaller and took on new influences shown in the glorious Bavarian pilgrimage architecture, Canaletto's romantic Venice and the blossoming of exotic designs and tastes all over Europe. The Rococo was art expressing itself in new, exciting ways.

Objective Proficiency p 58. Baroque: From St Peter's to St Paul's. Extra Listening

Objective Proficiency p 58. Sex and Sensibility: The Allure of Art Nouveau. Extra Listening


Allure: /əˈlʊə(r)/ the quality of being attractive and exciting. Sp. seducción, atracción, fascinación. E.g. sexual allure. The allure of the big city.


Fill in the gaps
TASK1
At the end of the 19th century, a 1___________, new style was taking Europe by 2____________. It was the 3 ________/ ______/ __________, the 4____________, decadent but also 5____________ end of the 19th century and the style was Art Nouveau.
Art Nouveau grew out of the dark, 6__________ energies of the industrial city. In the age of Darwin and Freud it was 7_________ with nature, sensuality and sex.
In the 8___________ of a decade or so Art Nouveau became pervasive. 9_______/ ______ by the 10_____________ middle classes of Europe, it was 11_____________ and mass produced.
What began as a revolution in the name of truth, beauty and nature, ended in 12____________, decadence and 13__________.
I'll be visiting the great cities of Europe, where the work of 14___________ like Emile Galle, artists like Gustav Klimt and 15____________ like Arthur Liberty 16_______________ all too briefly.
Paris at the end of the 19th century loved its bullet-straight boulevards, its 17____________ monuments and classically inspired architecture. However, beyond the 18____________, the population had exploded from half a million to 2.5 million people by 1900. Those elegant boulevards were 19_______________ with horses, carriages and crowds. Things needed to change. The city planners came up with a radical solution, the underground. Citizens were shocked because the entrances were like 20____________ wings, 21____________ metals, sensuous curves. It was a 22_______ declaration of the new art for the new century.
The World Fair of 1900 was when the city would show off its 23________________ new style.
Le Grand Palais is 24____________, isn't it?



KEY

1 luxurious /lʌɡˈʒʊəriəs/



2 storm (take something/ somebody by storm: to be extremely successful very quickly in a particular place or among particular people. Sp. arrasar. E.g. The play took London by storm.



3 fin de siècle /ˌfæ̃ də ˈsjekl/ typical of the end of the 19th century, especially of its art, literature and attitudes.



4 glamorous /ˈɡlæmərəs/ especially attractive and exciting, and different from ordinary things or people
glamorous movie stars.



5 anxious



6 restless unable to stay still or be happy where you are, because you are bored or need a change. Sp. agitado, inquieto. E.g. The audience was becoming restless. After five years in the job, he was beginning to feel restless. The children always get restless on long trips. 



7 fixated: always thinking and talking about somebody/ something in a way that is not normal. Sp obsesionado. E.g. He is fixated on things that remind him of his childhood.



8 space a period of time E.g. Forty-four people died in the space of five days.



9 Lapped up (lap something up: (informal) to accept or receive something with great enjoyment, without thinking about whether it is good, true or sincere. E.g. acoger con entusiasmo. E.g. It's a terrible movie but audiences everywhere are lapping it up. She simply lapped up all the compliments.



10 burgeoning /ˈbɜːdʒənɪŋ/ begining to grow or develop rapidly. Sp. floreciente. E.g. a burgeoning population. Burgeoning demand.



11 mimicked (mimic: to look or behave like something else. Imitate. E.g. The robot was programmed to mimic a series of human movements.)



12 derision: /dɪˈrɪʒn/ a strong feeling that somebody/ something is ridiculous and not worth considering seriously, shown by laughing in an unkind way or by making unkind remarks. Scorn. Sp. mofa, burla, escarnio. E.g. my stories were greeted with derision and disbelief.



13 decay the gradual destruction of a society, an institution, a system, etc. Sp deterioro, decadencia, declive. E.g. Economic/ moral/ urban decay. The decay of the old industries.



14 visionaries  /ˈvɪʒənriz/ 



15 entrepreneurs (entrepreneur /ˌɒntrəprəˈnɜː/ a person who makes money by starting or running businesses, especially when this involves taking financial risks. Sp. empresario, emprendedor. E.g. many entrepreneurs see potential in this market.



16 blossomed (blossom /ˈblɒsəm/ to become more healthy, confident or successful. Sp. florecer. E.g. She has visibly blossomed over the last few months.)



17 imposing /ɪmˈpəʊzɪŋ/ impressive to look at; making a strong impression. Sp. imponente, impresionante E.g. a grand and imposing building. A tall imposing woman.



18 grandeur /ˈɡrændjə(r)/ /ˈɡrændʒə(r)/ the quality of being great and impressive in appearance. Splendour. Sp. grandeza, majestuosidad, esplendor. E.g. the grandeur and simplicity of Roman architecture.



19 gridlocked a situation in which there are so many cars in the streets of a town that the traffic cannot move at all. Sp. paralizado. E.g. traffic is gridlocked in the cities.



20. bat 



21. sinuous /ˈsɪnjuəs/ turning while moving, in an elegant way; having many curves. E.g. a sinuous movement. The sinuous grace of a cat. The sinuous course of the river.



22. bold /bəʊld/ brave and confident; not afraid to say what you feel or to take risks. Sp. valiente, atrevido. E.g. It was a bold move on their part to open a business in France.



23. cutting-edge (the cutting edge (of something) the newest, most advanced stage in the development of something. Sp. innovador. E.g. working at the cutting edge of computer technology. Researchers at the cutting edge of molecular biology.



24. exquisite /ɪkˈskwɪzɪt/ extremely beautiful or carefully made. E.g. exquisite craftsmanship. Her wedding dress was absolutely exquisite.

TASK 2: 5'20''
The World Fair was designed to 1______________ the very best of modern art and industry and at the same time it was France's 2______________ for the 20th century.
More than 60 countries exhibited and 50 million people visited. It was the party to 3__________/ ________/ _________, and Art Nouveau was the guest of honour. Around Paris one could see the dramatic 4___________ of Rene Lalique, the 5__________ forms of Emile Galle's glass and the 6_______________ femme fatales of Alfonse Mucha 7___________ the Paris crowds. 
With all its marble and mosaics and 8___________ and glass, this was an 9____________ luxury showroom for Art Nouveau, at the same time that it held a 10_____________ mirror to French hopes and fears at the 11__________ of the 20th century.
At the time Paris was overcrowded, filthy and 12 __________/ _________ anti-Semitic tensions. 
But on the 13____________ of the 20th century, how did this 14______________ new style threaten to 15____________ the conservative ranks of traditional French design? 
Five years before the 20th century Art Nouveau had begun to emerge. Decadent, 16_____________, drug-fuelled, 17________________ there was a downside as well, of course. 
It was in Montmatre that the avant-garde artists of the day earned their 18___________.
Of all the artists who 19________/ _______/ _________/ _______ Art Nouveau, Charles Baudelaire was the most 20_____________. In 1857 he shocked Paris to its 21____________ with his first volume of poetry, Les Fleurs Du Mal.
It was in the back-street drinking 22__________ and 23_________/ _________ of Paris that Baudelaire's ideas about nature and art were 24___________/ ________/ ________ Art Nouveau designers.
Baudelaire 25_____________ the merit of artificiality over nature.
Is that because science and industry were giving us so much, one day we could 26___________ nature if it suited us?  
Like 27___________ to a flame, Art Nouveau designers were drawn to these women. 

KEY
1. showcase (exhibit; display. E.g. the albums showcase his production skills)  



2. manifesto (a public declaration of policy and aims, mission statement) 



3. end all parties (a —— to end all ——s. informal used to emphasize how impressive or successful something is of its kind. If you describe something as, for example, the deal to end all deals or the film to end all films, you mean that it is very important or successful, and that compared to it all other deals or films seem second-rate.E.g. she is going to throw a party to end all parties.)



4. jewellery 



5. organic (produced by or from living things. Living. E.g. Improve the soil by adding organic matter. Organic compounds)



6. alluring (/əˈlʊərɪŋ/ attractive and exciting in a mysterious way. Sp. seductor. E.g. An alluring smile)



7. dazzled (dazzle somebody to impress somebody a lot with your beauty, skill, etc. E.g. He was dazzled by the warmth of her smile.)



8. gilt (a thin layer of gold, or something like gold that is used on a surface for decoration. Sp. recubrimiento de oro) 



9. opulent (ostentatiously costly and luxurious. E.g. the opulent comfort of a limousine)



10. dazzling (extremely bright, especially so as to blind the eyes temporarily. Impressive. Sp. cegador, que deslumbra. E.g. the sunlight was dazzling. A dazzling display of oriental dance.)



11. turn (the turn of the century/ year the time when a new century/ year starts. E.g. It was built at the turn of the century.



12. simmering with (simmer (with something) to be filled with a strong feeling, especially anger, which you have difficulty controlling. Seethe. Sp. hervir de rabia, estallar. E.g. She was still simmering with resentment. Anger simmered inside him.)



13. cusp (a point of transition between two different states. Sp. Umbral. E.g. those on the cusp of adulthood)



14. upstart (/ˈʌpstɑːt / a person who has just started in a new position or job but who behaves as if they are more important than other people, in a way that is annoying. Presumptuous.Sp. engreído. E.g. Many prefer a familiar authority figure to a young upstart.) 



15. upstage (upstage somebody /ˌʌpˈsteɪdʒ/  to say or do something that makes people notice you more than the person that they should be interested in. Sp. eclipsar. E.g. She was furious at being upstaged by her younger sister.)



16. licentious (/laɪˈsenʃəs/ behaving in a way that is considered sexually immoral. Sp. licencioso, promiscuo, libertino. E.g. alarming stories of licentious behaviour.) 



17. absinthe-soaked (absinthe /ˈæbsɪnθ / /ˈæbsæ̃θ/ a very strong green alcoholic drink that tastes of aniseed /ˈænəsiːd/. Sp. absenta)



18. stripes (earn one's stripes gain a higher rank in the military. Deserve a position, status or reputation through work or achievements. E.g. she’s earning her stripes by showing how hard she’s willing to work.)



19. set the scene for (set the scene (for something) to create a situation in which something can easily happen or develop. Sp. preparar la escena. E.g. His arrival set the scene for another argument. Gillespie's goal set the scene for an exciting second half )



20. subversive (/səbˈvɜːsɪv / seeking or intended to destroy an established system or institution. Sp. subversivo. E.g. subversive literature)



21. breeches /ˈbrɪtʃɪz/ short trousers/ pants fastened just below the knee. E.g. A pair of breeches. Riding breeches)

Jackal: a wild animal like a dog. Sp. chacal.

Mongrel: /ˈmʌŋɡrəl/ a dog that is a mixture of different breeds. Sp. mestizo.



22. dens (den a place where people meet in secret, especially for some illegal or immoral activity. Sp. madriguera, guarida. E.g. a den of thieves. A drinking/ gambling den)



23. hash joints (hash: a hot dish of cooked meat and potatoes that are cut into small pieces and mixed together. Sp. guiso, estofado. E.g. corned beef hash. Joint: a place where people meet to eat, drink, dance, etc, especially one that is cheap. Sp. antro, tugurio, barucho. E.g. a fast-food joint. The joint was jumping (= full of people and activity). 



24. handed down to (hand something down (to somebody) [usually passive] to give or leave something to somebody who is younger than you. Sp. transmitir, legar. Pass down. E.g. These skills used to be handed down from father to son. Most of his clothes were handed down to him by his older brother.)



25. vaunts (vaunt /ˈvɔːnt/ boast about or praise (something), especially excessively. Sp. alardear de. E.g. the much vaunted information superhighway. Their much vaunted reforms did not materialize.)



26. tweak (tweak something to make slight changes to a machine, system, etc. to improve it. Sp. modificar. E.g. I think you'll have to tweak these figures a little before you show them to the boss.) 



27. moths (a flying insect with a long thin body and four large wings, like a butterfly, but less brightly coloured. Moths fly mainly at night and are attracted to bright lights. Idiom like a moth to the flame
with an irresistible attraction for someone or something. E.g he drew women to him like moths to the flame) 

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