Saturday, 5 November 2011

Objective Proficiency p 36. Food. Extra Vocabulary


Vocabulary
Ingredients

Meringue


/məˈræŋ/



Mutton



/ˈmʌtn/ meat from a fully grown sheep. E.g. I made mutton patties.



Balsamic vinegar 



/bɔːlˌsæmɪk ˈvɪnɪɡə(r)/ a dark sweet Italian vinegar, stored in barrels (= round wooden containers) to give it flavour.



Condiment



/ˈkɒndɪmənt/ 1 (British English) a substance such as salt or pepper that is used to give flavour to food. 2 (especially North American English) a sauce, etc. that is used to give flavour to food, or that is eaten with food. E.g. hot condiments made from a variety of chili peppers.



Lard



/lɑːd/ a firm white substance made from the melted fat of pigs that is used in cooking. Sp. manteca. E.g. Put butter or lard in a hot pan

Adjectives


Squeamish: 



easily made to feel sick or disgusted. E.g.  I've never been squeamish about food. One of my favorite dishes is steamed chicken feet.



Fussy



fastidious (Sp. meticuloso, maniático) about one’s needs or requirements; hard to please. E.g. A fussy eater. He is very fussy about what he eats. 



Picky



(of a person) liking only particular things and difficult to please. Fussy. E.g. a picky eater. She's very picky about her clothes.  



peckish: 



slightly hungry. E.g. Is there anything to eat? I’m feeling a bit peckish. Starting to get peckish. 



Wild



living or growing in natural conditions; not kept in a house or on a farm. E.g. a wild rabbit. Wild strawberries.



Perishable



/ˈperɪʃəbl/ likely to decay or go bad quickly. E.g. perishable goods/ foods. Opposite non-perishable



Canned



/kænd/ (British English also tinned) (of food) preserved in a can. E.g. canned food/ soup




Cure



preserve (meat, fish, tobacco, or an animal skin) by salting, drying, or smoking: E.g. cured ham. (As adjective, in combination -cured) home-cured ham.





Dietary 



/ˈdaɪətəri/ relating to or provided by diet. E.g. dietary changes. You'll have to change your dietary habits. Dietary advice for healthy skin and hair. Dietary fibre/ fat. The doctor says I need to reduce my dietary cholesterol, or he'll put me on medication. Dietary supplement.




Nourishing



/ˈnʌrɪʃɪŋ/ (of food) containing substances necessary for growth, health, and good condition. E.g. nourishing food. A simple but nourishing meal.



Nutritious



/njuˈtrɪʃəs/ (of food) very good for you; containing many of the substances which help the body to grow. Nourishing. E.g. tasty and nutritious meals




Heavy



large in amount or very solid. E.g. a heavy lunch/ dinner. A heavy cake. Avoid heavy foods that are difficult to digest. Opposite light



Rich: 



containing a lot of fat, butter, eggs, etc. and making you feel full quickly. E.g. a rich creamy sauce. A rich chocolate cake. 




Mixed



consisting of different types of the same thing. E.g. a mixed salad 




Leisurely: 



/ˈleʒəli/ Adj. done without hurrying. E.g. A leisurely meal.




Alcoholic: 



 /ˌælkəˈhɒlɪk/ E.g. alcoholic drinks. Non-alcoholic: (of a drink) not containing any alcohol. E.g. a non-alcoholic drink. Can I have something non-alcoholic?



Soft



E.g. a soft drink (a cold drink that does not contain alcohol)



Hard



[only before noun] strongly alcoholic. E.g. Hard liquor /ˈlɪkə(r)/. (Informal) a drop of the hard stuff (= a strong alcoholic drink).  



Sparkling



/ˈspɑːklɪŋ/ containing bubbles of gas. Fizzy. E.g. a sparkling wine. Sparkling mineral water.



Fizzy: 



having bubbles of gas in it. Sparkling. E.g. fizzy drinks. The wine was pink and slightly fizzy.




Bubbly:  



containing bubbles. E.g. bake until the top is crisp and bubbly. A bubbly drink.



Flat



no longer having bubbles in it; not fresh. E.g. The soda was warm and had gone flat.




Flambé: 



/ˈflɒmbeɪ/ (of food) covered with alcohol, especially brandy and allowed to burn for a short time. E.g. crêpes flambé



Sugar-coated



covered with sugar. Sp. Cubierto de azúcar. E.g. Sugar-coated cakes. Sugar-coated almonds.



Icing sugar



(US confectioner's sugar, powdered sugar) fine white powder made from sugar, that is mixed with water to make icing (US frosting).



Dredged



/dredʒd/ coated (food) by sprinkling with a powder, such as flour or sugar. Sp. espolvoreado. E.g. Dredge the top of the cake with icing sugar. A chocolate cake dredged with icing sugar.




Smothered with/in something



/ˈsmʌðə(r)/ 1. thickly covered or with too much of something. E.g. a rich dessert smothered in cream. Smothered in tomato sauce. The meat was smothered in thick sauce. Rich orange sorbets /ˈsɔːbeɪ/ smothered in fluffy (soft, light and containing air) whipped cream. 2. cooked in a covered container. E.g. smothered fried chicken.




Glazed



having a shiny surface or coating. E.g. glazed doughnuts.




Candied



/ ˈkændid/ (of fruit or other food) preserved by boiling in sugar; cooked in sugar. Sp. confitado. E.g. candied fruit. Candied peel (= of oranges). Candied sweet potatoes.




Caramelise (also -ize



/ˈkærəməlaɪz/ caramelize something to cook something, especially fruit, with sugar so that it is covered with caramel. E.g. tagliatelle with caramelized onions.



Buttery:  



/ˈbʌtəri/ like, containing or covered with butter. E.g. E.g. a rich buttery fruit cake. Layers of flaky buttery pastry.



Greasy



/ˈɡriːsi/ cooked with too much oil. E.g. greasy chips.





Lukewarm



/ˌluːkˈwɔːm/ slightly warm, sometimes in an unpleasant way. Tepid. E.g. Our food was only lukewarm. Heat the milk until it is just lukewarm. Her coffee was now lukewarm.




Tepid



/ˈtepɪd/ slightly warm, sometimes in a way that is not pleasant. E.g. tepid tea. A tepid bath.



Chilled: 



very cold but not frozen. E.g. This wine is best served chilled. Chilled foods (= for example in a supermarket). Chilled champagne.




Raw: 


not cooked. E.g. raw meat. These fish are often eaten raw.



Rare


(of meat) cooked for only a short time so that the inside is still red. ‘How would you like your steak?’ ‘Rare.’



Well done


(of food, especially meat) cooked thoroughly or for a long time. He prefers his steak well done.



Medium


in the middle. E.g. a medium steak (= one cooked quite well but not too much)



Underdone


not completely cooked.  



Overdone



cooked for too long. E.g. The fish was overdone and very dry. 




Milky



made of milk; containing a lot of milk. E.g. a hot milky drink. Milky tea/ coffee.





Pickled: 


/ˈpɪkld/ preserved in vinegar. E.g. pickled cabbage/ herring (arenque)/ onions


Nouns


Fry-up 



(a meal of fried food, such as bacon and eggs. E.g. It's not good for your heart to eat too many fry-ups.)



Roast



a large piece of meat that is cooked whole in the oven. E.g. the Sunday roast.



Stew



/stjuː/ a dish of meat and vegetables cooked slowly in liquid in a container that has a lid. Sp. estofado, guiso. E.g. beef stew and dumplings (balls of dough). I'm making a stew for lunch. 



Jug: 


 /dʒʌɡ/ a container with a handle and a lip, for holding and pouring liquids. Jarra.  E.g. A milk/water jug.



Chunk


a thick solid piece that has been cut or broken off something. Pedazo, trozo. E.g. A chunk of cheese.



Pinch


the amount of something that you can hold between your finger and thumb. E.g. a pinch of salt



Dash



(of something) a small amount of something that is added to something else. E.g. Add a dash of lemon juice. A dash of salt. A dash of milk.



Splash



(British English, informal) a small amount of liquid that you add to a drink. E.g. coffee with just a splash of milk. A scotch with a splash of soda



Starter: 



 a small amount of food that is served before the main course of a meal. E.g. This dish serves 4–6 people as a starter.



Appetiser: (also -izer



/ˈæpɪtaɪzə(r)/ a small amount of food or a drink that you have before a meal. E.g. Some green olives make a simple appetizer.



Hors d'oeuvre



/ˌɔː ˈdɜːv/ plural hors d'oeuvres /ˌɔː ˈdɜːv/ a small amount of food, usually cold, served before the main part of a meal.



Entrée



/ˈɒntreɪ/ [countable] the main dish of the meal or a dish served before the main course. E.g.
an entrée of light pasta. The choices are limited; one can select from seven entrées.



Pasty



/ˈpæsti/ a small pie containing meat and vegetables. 



Relish



a cold thick spicy sauce made from fruit and vegetables that have been boiled, that is served with meat, cheese, etc. E.g. Serve as a relish for meats and fish.



Roux



/ruː/ a mixture of fat and flour heated together until they form a solid mass, used for making sauces.

 Phrases 


À la carte



/ˌɑː lɑː ˈkɑːt / if food in a restaurant is à la carte, or if you eat à la carte, you choose from a list of dishes that have separate prices, rather than having a complete meal at a fixed price. E.g. There is an excellent à la carte restaurant for hotel residents. It was more expensive to eat à la carte. An à la carte menu




Al dente 



/ˌæl ˈdenteɪ/ /ˌæl ˈdenti/ (Italian, literally 'to the tooth') (of cooked food, especially pasta) firm, but not hard, when bitten. E.g. Peter likes his pasta cooked until soft, while Giulio prefers his al dente.



Au gratin



/ˌəʊ ˈɡrætæn/ covered in breadcrumbs or cheese and made brown by heating in an oven, etc. Sp gratinado. E.g. lentil and mushroom au gratin 



Spaghetti bolognese (also spaghetti bolognaise



/spəˌɡeti ˌbɒləˈneɪz/

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