Thursday, 14 September 2017

Homework 2016-2017

Workbook
You can do the exercises in Units 1-20

Blog  

In this blog you will find extra material to improve your English. 
 
Bibliography C2
Unit 1         1.1        1.2         1.3       Exam folder 1
Unit 2         2.1        2.2         2.3       Writing folder 1
Unit 3         3.1        3.2         3.3       Exam folder 2
Unit 4         4.1        4.2         4.3       Writing folder 2     Revision U 1-4
Unit 5         5.1        5.2         5.3       Exam folder 3 
Unit 6         6.1        6.2         6.3       Writing folder 3
Unit 7         7.1        7.2         7.3       Exam folder 4
Unit 8         8.1        8.2         8.3       Writing folder 4     Revision U 5-8
Unit 9         9.1        9.2         9.3       Exam folder 5
Unit 10       10.1      10.2      10.3       Writing folder 5
Unit 11       11.1      11.2      11.3       Exam folder 6
Unit 12       12.1      12.2      12.3       Writing folder 6     Revision U 9-12
Unit 13       13.1      13.2      13.3       Exam folder 7
Unit 14       14.1      14.2      14.3       Writing folder 7
Unit 15       15.1      15.2      15.3       Exam folder 8
Unit 16       16.1      16.2      16.3       Writing folder 8     Revision U 13-16
Unit 17       17.1      17.2      17.3       Exam folder 9
Unit 18       18.1      18.2      18.3       Writing folder 9
Unit 19       19.1      19.2      19.3       Exam folder 10
Unit 20       20.1      20.2      20.3       Writing folder 10   Revision U 17-20

Get ready for the speaking exam
Guide 

English C2 Blog Posts 



   


Assignments
1. Personal profile: 

Our language assistant this year is called Natalie. She is from Minnesota. Write an email  to her with your personal profile. (deadline: 17 Oct)  
You will find useful language here here  and here  

2. An essay:
Write a balanced discussion (discursive essay ) about the process, the necessity and the inevitability of major political, cultural, and social change. You can get more information on writing essays on pages 22 &23, 56 & 57, here and here. You will find useful language, here, here , here , here  and here. You can also get some ideas on this topic in Unit 1 and on this website (Deadline 31 Oct) 
Here you have another idea for a balanced discussion (discursive essay):
"The internet poses one of the greatest threats to our existence"
 
3. A review:
An international magazine wants readers to contribute writing a review. (Objective Proficiency p 39 Ex 6). Here you can find useful language for reviews. You can get more information on writing reviews on pages 38 & 39. Finally, you can find useful language for writing here. (Deadline 21 Nov)
 

4. An essay:
Write a discursive essay. (Objective Proficiency p 56). Do we as a society take music as seriously as we should? You will get more ideas on how to write an essay on pages 22 &23, 56 & 57  and here. You will find useful language, here, here , here , here  and here . You can also get some ideas and vocabulary on this topic here . (deadline: 12 Dec)
 

5. A proposal
Write a proposal. Find the details here. (Deadline 11 Jan) 
 

6. An article
Write an article. Find the details here. (Deadline 23 Jan) 

Make a Presentation:
Give a 10 minute presentation on one of the curriculum topics
You can find some tips here  and here
Deadlines:  
31 Oct: tell your teacher the topic
Feb: give the presentation  

 
7. A report
You work for the tourist office in your area. Your manager has asked you to write a report in English on the places that are popular with tourists who are interested in art. You should briefly describe the most popular places. Your report should also recommend two or three improvements that would enhance the tourists' experience and explain why these would attract even more visitors. You can find useful vocabulary to talk about art here. You can get information on writing reports on pages 106 & 107. Finally, you can find useful language for writing a report here, here and here. (Deadline 20 February)
 

8. Write a letter. You have read an article that appeared on the NPR website entitled "Will We 'Fix' The Weather? Yes. Should We Fix The Weather? Hmmm". You decide to write a letter to the writer of the article, , commenting on the views expressed and giving your own opinions. You can get more information on writing letters on pages 124 & 125. You will also find a letter writing guide here and here . You can find useful language here, here: Formal letters, here: How to write. and here. (Deadline: 13 March)
 

9. Write a review of two books you have read this year.   Useful language .  (Deadlines: before 31 Oct tell your teacher the book you are going to read. In April hand in your review) Click here for a list of readers and more instructions for this assignment. 
 

10. Write an article. An English-language newspaper is inviting readers to contribute to a series of articles about clothing. You decide to write an article about wearing the right clothes for the right occasion. You can find useful vocabulary to talk about clothing here. To see how to write articles click here and also here. You can also get some ideas on how to write articles on pages 90, 91, 158, 159, 174 & 175. Finally, you can find useful language for writing here. (Deadline: 26 April)

Sunday, 30 October 2016

Links

GENERAL
EE
EO
Vídeos per fomentar el debat: http://film-english.com/
Questions for peaking: http://iteslj.org/questions/
Movie Segments for Warm-ups and follow-ups http://warmupsfollowups.blogspot.com.es/
English pronunciation and sounds http://tv.uvigo.es/gl/serial/1432.html
CL
Readings with audio and activities: http://www.cdlponline.org/
CA
-  BREAKING NEWS ENGLISH: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/ 
-  LISTEN A MINUTE: http://www.listenaminute.com/ 
-  ESL-LAB. Randall´s Cyber Listening Lab: http://www.esl-lab.com 
-  ITESLJ.  ESL: Listening: http://iteslj.org/links/ESL/Listening 
-  ManyThings- Interesting Things for ESL Studentshttp://www.manythings.org/e/listening.html
-  Resources for Listening and Speaking Practice:http://www.xtec.es/~dpermany/globalsite/listening.htm
BBC- News in English from many different channels
Storyteller- Storytellers perform their stories
BBC interviews- interviews with very famous people: actors, actresses, singers, etc...
Focus English- Everyday conversations
NBC- Watch TV on the net
English the International Language- Listening comprehension exercises on various topics.
GR
-          Movie segments to assess grammar: http://moviesegmentstoassessgrammargoals.blogspot.com.es/
-          Oxford grammar online http://www.english-4u.de/
-          Oxford practice grammar Advanced https://elt.oup.com/student/practicegrammar/advanced/?cc=global&selLanguage=en
LÈXIC

Use of English

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

Initial Evaluation



PART ONE. OPEN CLOZE. Fill each of the blanks in the following passage with one suitable word.
It is a sad fact (0) .............................. adults laugh far less than children, sometimes (1) .............................. as much as a couple of hundred times a day. Just take a (2) .............................. at people's faces on the way to work or in the office: you'll be lucky to see a smile, let (3) .............................. hear a laugh. This is a shame - especially in (4) .............................. of the fact that scientists have proved that laughing is good for you. 'When you laugh,' says psychologist David Cohen, 'it produces the feel-good hormones, endorphins. It counters the effects of stress (5).............................. enhances the immune system.' There are many (6) .............................. why we might laugh less in adult life: perhaps we are too work-obsessed, or too embarrassed to (7) .............................. our emotions show. Some psychologists simply believe that children have more naive responses, and as adults we naturally grow (8) .............................. of spontaneous reactions. Luckily, (9).............................. , it is possible to relearn the art of laughter. In India, 'laughter clinics' have been growing (10).............................. popularity over the last few years, (11).............................. to the efforts of Dr Madan Kataria, (12).............................. work has won him (13) .............................. devoted following. Dr Kataria believes that his laughing techniques can help to strengthen the immune system and lower stress levels, (14).............................. other things. He teaches his patients different laughs or giggles to relax specific parts of the body. In 1998, when Dr Kataria organized a World Laughter Day at Bombay racetrack, 10,000 people (15) .............................. up.

PART TWO. WORD BUILDING.  For each blank space you are given words in their basic form. Decide on the correct form of each word and write it in the corresponding space.  Make sure your spelling is clear and unambiguous. An example (0) has been done for you.
Beauty, says the proverb, is in the eye of the 1__________ (BEHOLD). In the way of proverbs, that is a too-easy 2____________ (HALF). Two people in love may each see in the other a beauty not visible to the eyes of others. It could perhaps be called relative beauty and has only 3_________ (FAIR) remote 4____________ (KIN) to authentic beauty, which is not at all relative and is 5__________ (DEED) fundamental to the continuance of life on earth.
For beauty is a primary 6___________ (BIOLOGY) factor, even if its 7___________ (IMPORTANT) to every moment of life is 8____________ (GREAT) obscured by its being so 9____________ (SWADDLE) in cliché and every sort of sentimental 10______________ (UNDERSTAND). For example, 11_________________ (CHALLENGE), we accept that the rose is beautiful, though it must be said that roses in the wild can make some garden varieties look almost vulgar.
Some of nature's most 12____________ (POWER) and 13____________ (REMARK) images become clichés through 14_____________ (FAMILY), thanks to the 15_____________ (COMMERCE) world we live in. When transferred to a squat 16______________ (GREET) card or popular poster, the once 17____________ (EXCEPT) image of a many-hued rainbow against 18________________ (DRAMA) clouds or a florid sunset over tranquil sea is 19______________ (RENDER) banal and 20_______________ (PLACE). Roses fade and sunsets are transient, so let us appreciate them at the height of their beauty and in their natural 21_______________ (SET).



PART THREE. MULTIPLE CHOICE CLOZE. Read the text below and choose the option that best corresponds to the blank.
RIO DE JANEIRO - As samba queens get final touch-ups on their sequins and feathers and hundreds of thousands of (1)_____________ take command of Rio's streets for Carnival's opening on Friday, Leo Name is (2)____________. The self-avowed Carnival Scrooge has (3)__________ on frozen TV dinners and hopes he won't have to set foot outside his apartment during the five days of festivities.
(4)___________ at the monumental proportions that street parties have taken on in recent years with the influx of an estimated half million visitors to the city of 6 million people, many locals flee Rio or lock themselves away for the duration.
Fans of Carnival dismiss them as blasphemous (5)__________ . But Name and others like him insist theirs is a rational response to an event that shutters businesses, (6)_____________ traffic and sees public spaces overrun by beer (7)___________ party people who think any place is a good space to urinate.
"Over the past years, the crowds have gotten so thick that I couldn't even make it to the metro and wasn't able to buy bread at the supermarket, which is literally downstairs from my place," said Name, a geography professor at Rio's Pontific Catholic University. "I felt like I was under siege."
It wasn't always like that. For decades, Rio was fairly calm during Carnival. Residents who could afford it took advantage of the public holiday to go on vacation, and the city's pace slowed. Carnival celebrations were mostly restricted to the (8)____________ parades at the Sambadrome, where spectators now pay from $78 to $1,032 a person to (9)____________ at the over-the-top floats, the musicians' (10)_____________  enthusiasm and the fancy footwork of dancers decked out in not much more than a (11)___________ of rhinestones and a puff of ostrich feathers.
"When I was a kid, I used to go to three, four or even five movies a day during Carnival because the cinemas had these special discounts to try to (12)___________ an audience," said the 35-year-old Name. "It was great. The city was empty, the metro was empty, the streets were empty, and there were no lines anywhere."
But Carnival has spilled into Rio's streets with the resurgence of "blocos" — (13)___________, heavy-drinking street parties that regularly draw tens or hundreds of thousands of people. This year, organizers are hoping Rio's biggest bloco, "Bola Preta," or Black Ball, which in 2012 attracted an estimated 2 million people to the historic city center, will enter the Guinness Book of World Records as the world's biggest street party.
Far removed from the polished, highly produced glitz of the Sambadrome, blocos are come-one-come-all events that many people say (14)_____________ the authentic, popular spirit of Carnival. Organized by clubs or neighborhood associations, they draw participants from all walks of life and social classes. While a handful of the most established blocos date back nearly a century, themed street parties have proliferated in recent years, including ones for Michael Jackson fans, Beatles enthusiasts and a canine extravaganza for dogs and their owners, all (15)_____________ in extravagant costumes.
  1. A revellers                  B.mourners                C. dancers                  D. walkers
  2. A. striking up             B. snapped  up            C. hunkering down     D. pinning down
  3. A. piled up                  B. laid in                      C. stocked up             D. put down
  4. A. brimming               B. Appalled                 C. Amazed                 D. Unfazed
  5. A. curmudgeons        B. enthusiasts             C. misers                    D. zealots
  6. A. blows up                B. overworks              C. snarls                     D. ravels
  7. A munching                B. guzzling                  C. chomping               D. drenching
  8. A.well- regimented     B.well- settled             C.badly- organized     D.internally-organized
  9. A amaze                     B. marvel                    C. glare                       D. denigrate
  10. A. languid                   B. tiresome                 C. unflagging              D. flagging
  11. A. streak                     B. stream                    C.sprinkling               D. token
  12. A. drum up                 B. flock to                   C. whip up                  D. carve up
  13. A. serene                    B. raucous                  C. hoarse                    D. grating
  14. A. include                   B. embrace                C. enclose                  D. embody
  15. A. dressed down        B. made up                 C. decked out             D. shown up

PART FOUR. GAPPED SENTENCES. Think of ONE word only that can be used appropriately in all three sentences of each exercise. Write each word in the space provided on the ANSWER SHEET. An example (0) has been done for you.
1.  
a. The employment crisis is __________ that it is affecting one in four people.
b. ___________torrential rain is rare in this part of the world.
c. I didn't have a problem with the new manager's ideas as _________, but I disliked some of his mannerisms.
2.
a. Tom is bound to get a real wake up ________ when he enters the world of work after being closeted in the university for the last seven years.
b.  Many young men answered the __________ to arms and signed up as soon as war was declared.
c.  That car nearly drove into us, it was a really close __________ .
3.
a. You’d be _______ off if you put some money aside every month.
b. The guidelines for the office’s policy on _________ practice are displayed in the folder.
c. Come on! You need to put your __________ foot forward if you want to make it to the summit!
4.
a. It isn’t ___________ why she changed her mind at the last minute.
b. The intravenous solution was a _________, blue liquid.
c. Sheila decided to _____________ out the drawers of her desk.
5.
a. The president promised to take no __________  measures in order to improve the company’s productivity.
b. The forest looked eerie in the ________ light.
c. The top __________ of the statue was knocked down, while the base remains.
6.
a. Today’s crossword puzzle will definitely exercise your ________ matter!
b. What the government intends to do to solve the problem is still a ____________ area.
c. Although aging populations are often associated with poor economic growth, the __________ economy provides business opportunities not only in care provision, but also in recreational activities catering for the elderly.
7.
a. The teacher would not ___________ for the pupils’ unruly behaviour.
b. The union leader promised to _____________ his ground with regards to the proposed job cuts.
c.  The locals made a _________ against the plans for a new by-pass through the country park.
8.
a. When she checked her change, she found it was two Euros ___________.
b. Steve cut the discussion ___________ by clapping loudly.
c. These policies will only help us in the ____________ term - in ten years things will change.
9.
a. We'll certainly take your feelings into _____________ .
b. Linda wrote an interesting ____________ of her holiday in Australia.
c. How do you _____________ for the $100 that's missing?
10.
a. She had a bad start, but she's still in the _____________ for third place.
b. He looks after the day-to-day ____________ of the nursing home.
c. The Browns are in a ____________ battle with the neighbours about the fence between the yards.





PART FIVE. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATIONS. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

0. "I am sorry I didn't ring you to say I'd be late."
APOLOGISED
He __ apologised for not ringing (having rung) to say he'd __ be late.
1. She passed the word around that she was looking for a flat.
KNOWN
She ______________________________________ was looking for a flat.
2. Although he was tired, he agreed to play tennis.
THOUGH
Tired___________________________ play tennis.
3. I didn't realise how much he was influenced by his brother.
EXTENT
I didn't ________________________________ his brother.
4. "I never told anyone about your scheme," he said.
DENIED
He________________________ scheme.
5. It was wrong of you to scare your mother like that.
OUGHTN'T
You ______________________________ mother like that.
6. He's likely to leave before the letter arrives.
TIME
By__________________________________________________ left.
7. The window cleaners haven't called for at least six months.
TIME
The______________________________________ ago.
8. "Where on earth have you been all this time?"
DEMANDED
She ______________________________time.
9. The suitcase was extremely heavy but he managed to lift it easily.
OF
Despite _______________________________________ easily.
10. He is said to be  a very hard bargainer.
REPUTATION
He _________________________ hard bargainer.
11. He didn't think about leaving his family until they were ready to depart.
UNTIL
Not _______________________________________________ his family.
12. I then saw the danger that we were in.
DANGER
Only_____________________________________ in.
13. As soon as we left the tent, it collapsed.
TENT
No_____________________________________ collapsed.
14. If we had thought about it more, we would have taken extra fuel.
WOULD
Had____________________________________________ extra fuel.
15. They had never ridden motorbikes for such extended distances.
SUCH
Never_____________________________________ distances.
16. They did not consider giving up the expedition at any point.
THEY
At ________________________________________________ the expedition.
17. As I intended to expand my shop, I made an offer for the premises next door.
VIEW
I made an offer____________________________________ my shop.
18. The prisoner was recaptured as he rushed towards the gate.
DASH
The prisoner _____________________________________ gate.
19. Since the company's methods were exposed in a newspaper, people have lost their good opinion of it.
IT
Since the company's methods______________________________________ disrepute.
KEY
PART ONE. OPEN CLOZE. Fill each of the blanks in the following passage with one suitable word

Objective Proficiency p 145. Laughing is Good for You- Seriously. Extra Cloze

(0) that



(1) by



(2) look




(3) alone




(4) view




(5) and




(6) reasons




(7) let




(8) out




(9) however




(10) in




(11) thanks / owing/ due




(12) whose




(13) a




(14) among




(15) turned/ showed
PART TWO. WORD BUILDING.  For each blank space you are given words in their basic form. Decide on the correct form of each word and write it in the corresponding space.  Make sure your spelling is clear and unambiguous. An example (0) has been done for you.

Objective Proficiency p 62. Beauty: Contrast between Originality and Cliché. Extra Word Formation

1. beholder
beauty is in the eye of the beholder (saying) people all have different ideas about what is beautiful.
behold /bɪˈhəʊld/ beheld beheld: behold somebody/ something (old use or literary) to look at or see somebody/ something. E.g. Her face was a joy to behold. They beheld a bright star shining in the sky. Lo and behold (humorous) used for calling attention to a surprising or annoying thing. E.g. As soon as we went out, lo and behold, it began to rain.



2. half-truth  
Half-truth: a statement that gives only part of the truth, especially when it is intended to cheat somebody. E.g. The newspaper reports are a mixture of gossip, lies and half-truths.



3. fairly 
Fairly: to some extent but not very. Somewhat. Sp. bastante. E.g. I go jogging fairly regularly.


Remote: distant.



4. kinship
Kinship: affinity, relationship. Sp. We tend to feel kinship with those who share the same values. The ties of kinship.
Kin: your family or your relatives. E.g. Marriage between close kin is prohibited.



5. indeed
indeed used to emphasize a positive statement or answer. E.g. ‘Was he very angry?’ ‘Indeed he was.’ ‘Do you agree?’ ‘Indeed I do/Yes, indeed.’ ‘You said you'd help?’ ‘I did indeed—yes.’ It is indeed a remarkable achievement.



Continuance: /kənˈtɪnjuəns / the state of continuing to exist or function. E.g. We can no longer support the President's continuance in office.



6. biological



7. importance 



8. greatly 

obscure something /əbˈskjʊə(r)/ to make it difficult to see, hear or understand something. E.g. The view was obscured by fog. We mustn't let these minor details obscure the main issue. A shadow fell across her face, obscuring her expression.



9. swaddled
Swaddle:/ˈswɒdl/ swaddle somebody/something: to wrap somebody/something, especially a baby, tightly in clothes or a piece of cloth. Sp. Envolver. E.g. She swaddled the baby tightly. (Figurative) they have grown up swaddled in consumer technology.



10. misunderstanding



11. unchallengingly 
Unchallengingly:In an unchallenging way; without challenge or difficulty. Easily. E.g. The situation will not be unchallengingly simple. The program was comfortably and unchallengingly familiar: Schubert's Fifth Symphony.



12. powerful



13. remarkable
remarkable: unusual or surprising in a way that causes people to take notice. E.g. a remarkable achievement/ career/ talent.



14. familiarity



15. commercial  



16. greetings/ greeting (AmE)
greetings card: a card with a picture on the front and a message inside that you send to somebody on a particular occasion such as their birthday. 
Squat:  /skwɒt/  short, wide or fat and ugly. E.g. a squat tower. A squat muscular man with a shaven head.



17. exceptional

 
Hue: a colour; a particular shade of a colour. Hued: coloured. E.g. rainbow-hued.



18. dramatic
Florid: red. E.g. a florid complexion.



19. rendered
Render: render somebody/something + adjective (formal) to cause somebody/ something to be in a particular state or condition. Make. E.g. to render something harmless/ useless/ ineffective.

banal: very ordinary and containing nothing that is interesting or important. E.g. a banal conversation about the weather.



20. commonplace

Commonplace: having nothing original. Done very often, or existing in many places, and therefore not unusual. E.g. the usual commonplace remarks. Computers are now commonplace in primary classrooms. 
Transient: /ˈtrænziənt/ continuing for only a short time. Ephemeral.  Sp. Efímero, fugaz, pasajero, transitorio. E.g. the transient beauty of youth.
Height: the point when something is at its best or strongest. E.g. He is at the height of his career.  



21. setting
setting: a set of surroundings; the place at which something happens. E.g. a rural/ an ideal/ a beautiful/ an idyllic, etc. setting. It was the perfect setting for a wonderful Christmas. People tend to behave differently in different social settings.

PART THREE. MULTIPLE CHOICE CLOZE. Read the text below and choose the option that best corresponds to the blank.

Objective Proficiency p 66. As Carnival fever seizes Rio, some seek escape. Extra Cloze

Touch-up a quick improvement made to the appearance or condition of something. Sp. retoque. E.g. My lipstick needed a touch-up.
Sequin: /ˈsiːkwɪn/ a small round shiny disc sewn onto clothing as decoration. Sp. lentejuela. E.g. a dress covered in gold sequins


 
1. revellers (reveller /ˈrevələ(r)/ a person who is having fun in a noisy way, usually with a group of other people and often after drinking alcohol. Sp. juerguista)


yob: a rude, noisy and sometimes aggressive and violent boy or young man. E.g. a group of drunken yobs.

lout: a man or boy who behaves in a rude and aggressive way. We were woken by a group of drunken louts singing in the street outside. 

lager lout: a young man who drinks too much alcohol and then behaves in a noisy and unpleasant way


Mourner: /ˈmɔːnə(r)/  a person who attends a funeral, especially a friend or a relative of the dead person. Sp. doliente.

condolence: /kənˈdəʊləns/ sympathy that you feel for somebody when a person in their family or that they know well has died; an expression of this sympathy. E.g. to give/offer/express your condolences. Our heartfelt condolences go to his wife and family. A letter of condolence. My sincere condolences go out to you and your children. It must have been a terrible loss to you all. I am sure you made him a really proud and very happy husband and father. He must have loved you all very much.You must be extremely grief-stricken.


sympathy: the feeling of being sorry for somebody; showing that you understand and care about somebody’s problems. E.g. to express/feel sympathy for somebody. Our heartfelt sympathy goes out to the victims of the war. 


heartfelt: showing strong feelings that are sincere. E.g. heartfelt sympathy/thanks. 


grief-stricken feeling extremely sad because of something that has happened, especially the death of somebody. E.g. There was no way of consoling her grief-stricken family.

2. Hunker down: /ˈhʌŋkə(r)/ to prepare yourself to stay somewhere, keep an opinion, etc. for a long time. Take shelter. Sp. instalarse, resguardarse. E.g. During the sandstorm, they hunkered down in a small hut.

Strike up (with something)/ strike up something (of a band, an orchestra, etc.) to begin to play a piece of music. E.g. The orchestra struck up and the curtain rose. The band struck up a waltz.
Strike up something (with somebody): to begin a friendship, a relationship, a conversation, etc. E.g. He would often strike up conversations with complete strangers.

Snap something up: (informal) to buy or obtain something quickly because it is cheap or you want it very much. Sp. apoderarse de. E.g. All the best bargains were snapped up within hours. (figurative) She's been snapped up by Hollywood to star in two major movies.

Pin somebody down:  to make somebody unable to move by holding them firmly. E.g. Two men pinned him down until the police arrived.


Self-avowed: avowed /əˈvaʊd/ that has been admitted or stated in public. Sp. declarado. E.g. an avowed atheist. An avowed aim/ intention/ objective/ purpose. Their avowed aim is to disrupt society (Sp. su objetivo declarado es causar problemas en la sociedad)
 
Scrooge  /skruːdʒ/ From Ebenezer Scrooge, a character in Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol who is extremely mean and doesn't socialise.

party pooper: a person who does not want to take part in an enjoyable activity and spoils the fun for other people.

party animal: a person who likes to go to parties, often drinks a lot of alcohol, and tends to behave in a loud and noisy way.

 the life and soul of the party ​someone who is energetic and funny and at the centre of activity during social occasions.  

wet blanket: a person who is not enthusiastic about anything and who stops other people from enjoying themselves.

mingle: to move among people and talk to them, especially at a social event. E.g. If you'll excuse me, I must go and mingle (= talk to other guests).

gregarious: /ɡrɪˈɡeəriəs/ liking to be with other people. E.g. She’s very outgoing and gregarious.

solitary: /ˈsɒlətri/ (of a person or an animal) enjoying being alone; frequently spending time alone. E.g.  He was a solitary child.

keep (oneself) to oneself: to spend a lot of time alone, not talking to other people very much. E.g. He was a quiet man who kept to himself. My neighbour was an elderly lady who kept herself to herself.

miser: /ˈmaɪzə(r)/ a person who loves money and hates spending it.

tight-fisted: not willing to spend or give much money.

mean: not willing to give or share things, especially money. E.g. She's always been mean with money.  

stingy /ˈstɪndʒi/ not given or giving willingly; not generous, especially with money. E.g. You're stingy! (= not willing to spend money) 




 
3. stocked up (stock up (on/with something) to buy a lot of something so that you can use it later. E.g. We ought to stock up on film before our trip


lay something in/up: to collect and store something to use in the future. E.g. to lay in food supplies.


non-perishable: not subject to rapid deterioration or decay. E.g. A supply of non-perishable food was kept for emergencies.

foodstuff: any substance that is used as food. E.g. basic foodstuffs. We need to stock up on non-perishable foodstuffs.

preserve: preserve something to prevent something, especially food, from decaying by treating it in a particular way. E.g. preserved fruit. Oranges preserved in brandy.

preservative: /prɪˈzɜːvətɪv/ preventing food or wood from decaying. E.g. the preservative effects of freezing. This bread is completely free from artificial preservatives. No added preservatives. Natural preservatives. 



A TV dinner (also called a ready-made meal, ready meal, frozen dinner, frozen meal, microwave meal) is a prepackaged frozen or chilled meal that usually comes as an individual portion. It requires very little preparation and contains all the elements for a single-serving meal.



convenience food: food that you buy frozen or in a box or can, that you can prepare and cook very quickly and easily.






Set foot in/on something: to enter or visit a place. E.g. the first man to set foot on the moon. I vowed never to set foot in the place again.



4. Appalled (/əˈpɔːld/ feeling or showing horror or disgust at something unpleasant or wrong. Horrified. E.g. We watched appalled as the child ran in front of the car. Appalled at something They were appalled at the waste of recyclable material.

Brim: to be full of something; to fill something. E.g. Tears brimmed in her eyes. Brim with something Her eyes brimmed with tears.The team were brimming with confidence before the game. Brimming with enthusiasm/ trepidation.
trepidation: great worry or fear about something unpleasant that may happen. E.g. He knocked on the door with some trepidation.

Unfazed: /ʌnˈfeɪzd/ not worried or surprised by something unexpected that happens. Sp. impávido, sin inmutarse. E.g. She was totally unfazed by the news.

Take something on: to begin to have a particular quality, appearance, etc. Sp. adquirir. E.g. The chameleon can take on the colours of its background. His voice took on a more serious tone.

Influx (of somebody/something) (into…) /ˈɪnflʌks/ the fact of a lot of people, money or things arriving somewhere. E.g. a massive/ sudden influx of visitors. The influx of wealth into the region.
Flee, fled, fled: to leave a person or place very quickly, especially because you are afraid of possible danger. E.g. He was caught trying to flee the country.  
dismiss: /dɪsˈmɪs/ to decide that somebody/ something is not important and not worth thinking or talking about. Sp. rechazar. E.g. I think we can safely dismiss their objections. Vegetarians are no longer dismissed as cranks (eccentric). 
Blasphemous /ˈblæsfəməs/ disrespectful. E.g. Many people found the film blasphemous.



5. curmudgeons (curmudgeon /kɜːˈmʌdʒən/ a bad-tempered person, often an old one. Sp. gruñón, cascarrabias. E.g. Unconcerned with coming off as a curmudgeon, Mr. Armstrong does not gladly suffer fools when it comes to his work.)

Miser: /ˈmaɪzə(r)/ a person who loves money and hates spending it.
Zealot: /ˈzelət/ a person who is extremely enthusiastic about something, especially religion or politics. Fanatic. E.g. He does not come off as a zealot but he’s been very vigorous in trying to better protect consumers from financial abuses.

Shutter: close (a business). E.g. an additional dozen stores will be shuttered in the coming weeks.



6. snarls (Snarl up: /snɑːlto involve somebody/ something in a situation that stops their movement or progress; to become involved in a situation like this Sp. atascar. E.g. Flooding and snarled holiday traffic were expected in Southern California. The coach became snarled up in traffic. The accident snarled up the traffic all day.



tailback: a long line of traffic that is moving slowly or not moving at all, because something is blocking the road. E.g.  It took a couple of hours for the two-mile tailback to clear. There are five-mile tailbacks on the M25 this morning. There are reports of severe tailbacks in both directions.

gridlock: a situation in which there are so many cars in the streets of a town that the traffic cannot move at all. E.g. It’s gridlock between 6.30 and 9.00. The protest march created gridlock. 

bumper-to-bumper: moving slowly or stalled as a result of tight spacing between vehicles. E.g. bumper-to-bumper traffic. 

traffic jam: a long line of vehicles on a road that cannot move or that can only move very slowly. E.g. We were stuck in a traffic jam. 

 

Blow up: 1. to explode; to be destroyed by an explosion. E.g. The police station was blown up by terrorists. 2.  to fill something with air or gas so that it becomes firm. E.g. The tyres on my bike need blowing up.

Overwork: to work too hard; to make a person or an animal work too hard. E.g. You look tired. Have you been overworking? Overwork somebody/ something She overworks her staff.

Ravel something:
/ˈrævl/  to make a situation or problem more complicated. E.g. I’d prefer you to keep your nose out of my business and not ravel things further.


unravel (something) to explain something that is difficult to understand or is mysterious; to become clearer or easier to understand. E.g. The discovery will help scientists unravel the mystery of the Ice Age.





Overrun, overran, overrun: to fill or spread over an area quickly, especially in large numbers. E.g. The house was completely overrun with mice. The tiny village was overrun by tourists. 



7. guzzling (guzzle /ˈɡʌzl/ to drink something quickly and in large amounts. In British English it also means to eat food quickly and in large amounts. Tragar, engullir, devorar. E.g. The kids seem to be guzzling soft drinks all day. (Figurative) My car guzzles fuel.) 

Munch: to eat something steadily and often noisily, especially something crisp. E.g. She munched on an apple. 
 


Chomp: to eat or bite food noisily. Sp. mascar. E.g. he chomped on a roll. 

gobble: to eat something very fast, in a way that people consider rude or greedy. E.g. Don't gobble your food like that! They gobbled down/up all the sandwiches.

wolf something (down) (informal) to eat food very quickly, especially by putting a lot of it in your mouth at once.

devour something /dɪˈvaʊə(r)/ to eat all of something quickly, especially because you are very hungry. E.g. He devoured half of his burger in one bite. The animal quickly devoured its prey. 

pick at something to eat food slowly, taking small amounts or bites because you are not hungry She sat at the table in silence, picking at her dinner.

peckish: slightly hungry. E.g. Is there anything to eat? I’m feeling a bit peckish. I'm starting to get peckish.

 
Drench: to make somebody/something completely wet. E.g. We were caught in the storm and got drenched to the skin. 

Under siege: 1 surrounded by an army or the police in a siege. Sp. bajo asedio, sitiado. E.g. The city was under siege for six months. 





curfew: a law which says that people must not go outside after a particular time at night until the morning; the time after which nobody must go outside. E.g. The army imposed a dusk-to-dawn curfew. You must get home before curfew


8. well-regimented (regimented /ˈredʒɪmentɪd/ involving strict discipline and/ or organization. Sp. reglamentado. E.g. The school imposes a very regimented lifestyle on its students.)



9. marvel (marvel (at something) to be very surprised or impressed by something. E.g. Everyone marvelled at his courage.)

Glare: to look angrily at somebody/ something for a long time. E.g. I looked at her and she glared stonily back.
Stonily: /ˈstəʊnɪli/ in a way that shows a lack of feeling or sympathy. E.g. She stared stonily at him for a minute.

Floats: a large vehicle on which people dressed in special costumes are carried in a festival. E.g. a carnival float.



10.
unflagging: remaining strong; not becoming weak or tired. Tireless. Sp. infatigable. E.g. Unflagging energy. She had shown unflagging support for the cause. 

Languid: /ˈlæŋɡwɪd/ weak or faint from illness or fatigue. E.g.  she was pale, languid, and weak, as if she had delivered a child.
Tiresome: making you feel bored or annoyed. Annoying. E.g. Buying a house can be a very tiresome business.
Flagging: to become tired, weaker or less enthusiastic. Sp. que flaquea. E.g. It had been a long day and the children were beginning to flag. Her confidence had never flagged. Flagging support/enthusiasm.

Footwork: the way in which a person moves their feet when playing a sport or dancing.

Deck somebody/ something (out) (in/with something) to decorate somebody/ something with something. E.g. The room was decked out in flowers and balloons.



11. Sprinkling: /ˈsprɪŋklɪŋ/ a small amount of a substance that is dropped somewhere, or a number of things or people that are spread or included somewhere. E.g. Add a sprinkling of pepper. There was a sprinkling of freckles on her cheeks. Most were men, but there was also a sprinkling of young women.

Streak: a long thin mark or line that is a different colour from the surface it is on. Raya. E.g. There was a streak of blood on his face. Streaks of grey in her hair. Dirty streaks on the window. Streaks of sunlight.

Stream of something: a large number of things that happen one after the other. E.g. A constant stream of enquiries. The agency provided me with a steady stream of work. Most of the letter consisted of a stream of abuse.

Token: something that is a symbol of a feeling, a fact, an event, etc. Expression, mark. Sp. Señal. E.g. Please accept this small gift as a token of our gratitude. 

Rhinestone: /ˈraɪnstəʊn/ a clear stone that is intended to look like a diamond, used in cheap jewellery. Sp. diamante de imitación. E.g. a canary-yellow suit studded (decorated) with rhinestones.

Puff: a small amount of air, smoke, etc. that is blown from somewhere. E.g. a puff of wind.



12. drum up (drum something up: to try hard to get support or business. Sp. estimular, suscitar. E.g. He had flown to the north of the country to drum up support for the campaign. E.g. let's drum up some support for our new scheme.)

Flock to go or gather together somewhere in large numbers. E.g. Thousands of people flocked to the beach this weekend.

 
birds of a feather (flock together)
(saying) people of the same sort (are found together)


Whip somebody/ something up to deliberately try and make people excited or feel strongly about something. Rouse. Sp. suscitar. E.g. The advertisements were designed to whip up public opinion. He was a speaker who could really whip up a crowd. Everyone is bored at the office so I need to whip up some energy.

Carve something up: (disapproving) to divide a company, an area of land, etc. into smaller parts in order to share it between people. Sp. repartir, dividir. E.g. They have been accused of carving up the industry for their own benefit. West Africa was carved up by the Europeans.
 
receivership the state of a business being controlled by an official receiver because it has no money. E.g. Five hundred jobs were lost when the company went into receivership last year. Her company has been in receivership for six months now.
 
bankruptcy: E.g. The company filed for bankruptcy.  

Line: queue.

Spill: to come out of a place in large numbers and spread out. E.g. The doors opened and people spilled into the street. (Figurative) Light spilled from the windows.  

Resurgence /rɪˈsɜːdʒəns/ the return and growth of an activity that had stopped. Sp. resurgimiento. E.g. a resurgence of interest in the artist's work.



13. raucous /ˈrɔːkəs/ sounding loud and rough. Sp. ruidoso. E.g. raucous laughter. A raucous voice. A group of raucous young men. They grew more and more raucous as the evening went on.

Serene: /səˈriːn/ calm and peaceful. E.g. a lake, still and serene in the sunlight.

Hoarse: /hɔːs/ sounding rough and unpleasant, especially because of a sore throat. Sp. ronco. E.g. He shouted himself hoarse. A hoarse cough/ cry/ scream. His voice was hoarse with exhaustion.

Grating: /ˈɡreɪtɪŋ/ (of a sound or somebody's voice) unpleasant to listen to. Sp. chirriante, chillón. The sound of his grating voice complaining all day was driving me crazy. 

Glitz: the quality of appearing very attractive, exciting, impressive, extravagant but superficial display. Sp. ostentación, pompa. E.g. the glitz and glamour of the music scene. The glitz and sophisticated night life of Ibiza.


brash: (of things and places) too bright or too noisy in a way that is not attractive. E.g. It was real gold but it still looked brash and cheap. Magaluf is the brashest resort on the island.

flashy: (of things) attracting attention by being bright, expensive, large, etc. E.g. a flashy hotel. I just want a good reliable car, nothing flashy. 



 

Come one, come all something that you say which means that everyone or everything can join or be included. E.g. We can't just invite some people and not others, so I guess it's a case of come one, come all.



14. embody to express or represent an idea or a quality. E.g. a national team that embodies competitive spirit and skill 

A walk of life: a person's job or position in society. Background. E.g. She has friends from all walks of life.

Canine  /ˈkeɪnaɪn/ connected with dogs. E.g. London's canine population. Her canine companion, Goldie.

Extravaganza: /ɪkˌstrævəˈɡænzə/ a large, expensive and impressive entertainment. Sp. espectáculo. E.g. a musical extravaganza. A five-day extravaganza of art, music and dance.



15.
decked out (Deck somebody/ something (out) (in/with something) to decorate somebody/ something with something. E.g. The room was decked out in flowers and balloons.)




Dress down: to wear clothes that are more informal than those you usually wear, for example in an office.

Show somebody up:1 (British English, informal) to make somebody feel embarrassed by behaving badly. E.g. He showed me up by snoring during the concert. 2 to make somebody feel embarrassed by doing something better than them. E.g. Don't worry about being shown up by the kids—they've always used computers

PART FOUR. GAPPED SENTENCES. Think of ONE word only that can be used appropriately in all three sentences of each exercise. Write each word in the space provided on the ANSWER SHEET. An example (0) has been done for you.
1. such

such delicious toast
such bad weather
such tasty bread
such scrumptious spaghetti
such a heavenly toastie (toasted sandwich)

2. call
wake-up call an event that makes people realize that there is a problem that they need to do something about. E.g. These riots should be a wake-up call for the government.
a call to arms: a command to report for active military duty. A strong request to fight in the army.

a close call/shave (informal) a situation in which you only just manage to avoid an accident, etc. The car just missed the child but it was a very close call.

 

by the skin of your teeth (informal) if you do something by the skin of your teeth, you only just manage to do it. E.g. He escaped defeat by the skin of his teeth.

by a hair's breadth a very small amount or distance We won by a hair's breadth. They were within a hair's breadth of being killed.



3. best

put your best foot forward to make a great effort to do something, especially if it is difficult or you are feeling tired




4. clear
intravenous /ˌɪntrəˈviːnəs/


5. half
half measures: a policy or plan of action that is weak and does not do enough. E.g. There are no half measures with this company. Are half measures good enough to restore people's confidence in business? We need more than half measures to resolve the problems that recur here so often.
eerie: /ˈɪəri/ strange, mysterious and frightening. E.g. I found the silence underwater really eerie.
half light: a dull light in which it is difficult to see things
in the grey half-light of dawn


6. grey (gray AmE)
grey matter: 1. the grey-brown substance in your brain and spinal cord that consists mainly of the bodies of neurons (=cells that carry messages to and from your brain). 2. a person's intelligence. E.g. This should exercise the old grey matter. I wish I had a little of her grey matter.

white matter: the white substance in your brain and spinal cord that consists mainly of nerve fibres.

grey area: an area of a subject or situation that is not clear or does not fit into a particular group and is therefore difficult to define or deal with. E.g. Exactly what can be called an offensive weapon is still a grey area. The new rules for police procedure cleared up a lot of grey areas. That grey area between legitimate protest and illegal disruption. Grey areas in the legislation have still to be clarified. I used to be idealistic enough to think that all the world was clean and tidy, that rules were rules, that there were no gray areas anywhere.
grey: used for describing issues that affect old people. E.g. grey power. The grey vote.



7. stand
not stand for something to not let somebody do something or something happen. E.g. I'm not standing for it any longer. No one makes a fool of me. I won't stand for it!

hold/stand your ground 1 to continue with your opinions or intentions when somebody is opposing you and wants you to change. E.g. Don't let him persuade you—stand your ground. 2 to face a situation and refuse to run away. It is not easy to hold your ground in front of someone with a gun.


stand: a strong effort to defend yourself or your opinion about something. E.g. We must make a stand against further job losses. The rebels' desperate last stand.
by-pass: 1 (especially British English) a road that passes around a town or city rather than through the centre. E.g. the western bypass around the town. The Newbury bypass.


8. short
cut short to end abruptly; terminate. E.g. Her nap was cut short by a loud noise from outside.



9. account
account: a written or spoken description of something that has happened. E.g. She gave the police a full account of the incident. The diaries contained detailed accounts of the writer's experiences in China.

account for: to give an explanation of something. Explain. E.g. How do you account for the show's success? He was unable to account for the error.



10. running

in/out of the running (for something) (n) (informal) having some/no chance of succeeding or achieving something. E.g. he is in the running for an Oscar.


running: (n) the activity of managing or operating something. E.g. the day-to-day running of a business. The running costs of a car (= for example of fuel, repairs, insurance).

running: (adj) lasting a long time; continuous. E.g. For years he had fought a running battle with the authorities over the land. A running argument. His old raincoat became a running joke (= people kept laughing at it).

PART FIVE. KEY WORD TRANSFORMATIONS. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

0. "I am sorry I didn't ring you to say I'd be late."
APOLOGISED
He _apologised for not ringing (having rung) to say he'd___ be late.


1. She passed the word around that she was looking for a flat.
KNOWN
She _let it be known that she__ was looking for a flat.


2. Although he was tired, he agreed to play tennis.
THOUGH
Tired _though he was, he agreed to _ play tennis.


3. I didn't realise how much he was influenced by his brother.
EXTENT
I didn't _realise the extent to which he was influenced by__ his brother.


4. "I never told anyone about your scheme," he said.
DENIED
He_ denied telling (having told) anyone about my/our_ scheme.


5. It was wrong of you to scare your mother like that.
OUGHTN'T
You _oughtn't to have scared your_ mother like that.


6. He's likely to leave before the letter arrives.
TIME
By _the time the letter arrives, he's likely to have (or he'll probably have)___ left.


7. The window cleaners haven't called for at least six months.
TIME
The__ last time the window cleaners called was at least six months___ ago.


8. "Where on earth have you been all this time?"
DEMANDED
She __demanded to know where on earth I/we had been all that time __time


9. The suitcase was extremely heavy but he managed to lift it easily.
OF
Despite _the (heavy) weight of the suitcase, he managed to lift it___ easily


10. He is said to be  a very hard bargainer.
REPUTATION
He _has the reputation of (being)/ a reputation as a very _ hard bargainer /ˈbɑːɡənə/


11. He didn't think about leaving his family until they were ready to depart.
UNTIL
Not _until they were ready to depart did he think about leaving __ his family.


12. I then saw the danger that we were in.
DANGER
Only__  then did I see the danger that we were ___________ in.


13. As soon as we left the tent, it collapsed.
TENT
No___ sooner had we left the tent than it_______ collapsed.


14. If we had thought about it more, we would have taken extra fuel.
WOULD
Had__ we thought about it more, we would have taken_____ extra fuel.


15. They had never ridden motorbikes for such extended distances.
SUCH
Never_ before had they ridden motorbikes for such extended ___ distances.


16. They did not consider giving up the expedition at any point.
THEY
At _no point did they consider giving up__ the expedition.


17. As I intended to expand my shop, I made an offer for the premises next door.
VIEW
I made an offer__ for the premises next door with a view to expanding__ my shop

with a view to something/to doing something

(formal) with the intention or hope of doing something. E.g. He's painting the house with a view to selling it.

in view of something

(formal) considering something. E.g. In view of the weather, the event will now be held indoors.



18. The prisoner was recaptured as he rushed towards the gate.
DASH
The prisoner __ was recaptured as he made a dash for the ___ gate.

a dash (for something): an act of going somewhere suddenly and/or quickly. E.g. He jumped off the bus and made a dash for the nearest bar.



19. Since the company's methods were exposed in a newspaper, people have lost their good opinion of it.
IT
Since the company's methods__ were exposed in a newspaper, it has fallen into __ disrepute

disrepute: /ˌdɪsrɪˈpjuːt/ the fact that somebody/something loses the respect of other people. E.g. The old system had fallen into disrepute. The players' behaviour on the field is likely to bring the game into disrepute. The president brought his office into disrepute and betrayed the people's trust.